VHFA News https://www.vhfa.org/ en VHFA is hiring! https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/vhfa-hiring-12 <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>Vermont Housing Finance Agency (VHFA) is <a href="https://vhfa.org/about/staff/employment">recruiting</a> for a Director of Human Resources &amp; Administration. Named one of the “Best Small/Medium Places to Work in Vermont” several times over the last few years, VHFA offers a competitive salary and comprehensive benefits package.</p> <p>This position is charged with understanding the pulse of VHFA's workforce and bringing programs, policies, issues and opportunities to Executive Management so that VHFA can remain one of the best places to work in Vermont. The Director of Human Resources and Administration will need to work closely with managers to continually improve management skills and coach individual staff as needed. This position will administer all aspects of the Agency’s benefits, compensation, recruitment, training and performance evaluation, and onboarding and departing staff needs. </p> <p>VHFA is an equal opportunity employer and is committed to a diverse workplace. We highly encourage women, persons with disabilities, LGBTQ people and people from diverse racial, ethnic and cultural backgrounds to apply.</p> <p>For a detailed job description, salary range and benefits overview for this position, please see <a href="https://vhfa.org/about/staff/employment">VHFA's website.</a> To apply, send cover letter (required), resume, and references to the Human Resources Department at <a href="mailto:HR@vhfa.org">HR@vhfa.org</a>. The position will be open until filled.</p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/HR%20Director%20Hire.png?itok=UNoHpKTf" width="480" height="302" alt="HR Director Hire" title="HR Director Hire" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Wed, 11 May 2022 12:19:30 +0000 Steve Gronlund 15063 at https://www.vhfa.org New data shows how Vermont towns balance jobs and homes https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/new-data-shows-how-vermont-towns-balance-jobs-and-homes <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>Towns with sufficient homes to house the employees that work there are more likely to make inroads against climate change and the housing affordability crisis. According to <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/income-employment/jobs-homes-index">data published this week</a> by the Vermont Housing Data website, the top Vermont town with over 10,000 workplaces to strike this balance is Essex. For every 100 homes in Essex, the town has 112 jobs.</p> <p>The <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/income-employment/jobs-homes-index">Jobs-Homes Index</a> compares the <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/income-employment/jobs">number of jobs</a> in an area with the <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/population-household/households-by-tenure">number of occupied (non-seasonal) homes</a> there. <a href="https://escholarship.org/content/qt7mx3k73h/qt7mx3k73h_noSplash_1b94b2f68d64e93b0fe30509dbf95809.pdf?t=mc2sxr">Experts suggest</a> that an ideal market would have a ratio of 1.5. A ratio higher than 1.5 indicates that the community may not have enough homes to meet the demands of its workforce. Homes with lower ratios than 1.0 tend to serve as ‘bedroom communities’ for adjacent job centers. </p> <p><strong>Vermont towns with over 10,000 jobs </strong></p> <table border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" style="width: 600px;"> <caption>Source: Vermont Housing Data website, <a href="http://www.housingdata.org/profile">www.housingdata.org/profile</a></caption> <thead> <tr> <th scope="col" style="width: 184px;">Town/city</th> <th scope="col" style="width: 120px;">Jobs</th> <th scope="col" style="width: 140px;">Jobs-Homes Index</th> <th scope="col" style="width: 157px;">Average annual housing growth</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 184px;">Burlington</td> <td style="width: 120px;">33,154</td> <td style="width: 140px;">1.9</td> <td style="width: 157px;">0.8%</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 184px;">South Burlington</td> <td style="width: 120px;">16,701</td> <td style="width: 140px;">1.8</td> <td style="width: 157px;">1.4%</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 184px;">Rutland City</td> <td style="width: 120px;">12,595</td> <td style="width: 140px;">1.7</td> <td style="width: 157px;">-0.1%</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 184px;">Williston</td> <td style="width: 120px;">11,629</td> <td style="width: 140px;">2.7</td> <td style="width: 157px;">2.3%</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 184px;">Essex</td> <td style="width: 120px;">10,426</td> <td style="width: 140px;">1.1</td> <td style="width: 157px;">1.8</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p> </p> <p><img alt="Jobs to home index" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" height="599" src="https://www.vhfa.org//sites/default/files/images/Jobs%20homes%20index.png" width="438" class="align-right" /></p> <p>About 40% of Vermont’s jobs are located in the Burlington-South Burlington metropolitan area.  Williston, Burlington and South Burlington have the greatest undersupply of housing in the area, according to the Jobs-Homes Index.  </p> <p>Small and medium-sized communities also face challenges striking the jobs-homes balance. Berlin, home to Central Vermont Medical Center, faces the greatest imbalance in the state with 426 jobs for every 100 homes.  Tiny Stratton and Jay also have far more jobs than homes due to the resort jobs located there. </p> <p>A decades-long <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/housing-stock/rate-of-change">slow-down in home building</a> is underway in many Vermont towns. When towns with a large portion of the state’s jobs fail to keep up in terms of homes, thousands of employees must locate further away which increases commuting time and transportation carbon emissions. </p> <p>The lack of available homes near jobs may underlie Vermont’s continued workforce challenges. The state had 9,345 fewer <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/income-employment/labor-force">employed workers </a>in March 2022 compared to March 2019. While workers may have left the workforce for various reasons related to the pandemic, employers <a href="https://www.burlingtonfreepress.com/story/news/2022/03/21/covid-19-labor-shortage-vermont-hiring-employees-struggle-housing-child-care/6828632001/">consistently identify housing</a> as a major barrier to attracting workers. Some <a href="https://www.sevendaysvt.com/vermont/cottages-industry-the-housing-crisis-complicates-hiring-forcing-employers-to-become-realtors-and-builders/Content?oid=35436374">Vermont employers</a> have started trying to help workers find housing in attempt to fill open positions.</p> <p>Building the housing needed to meet workforce needs is vital both for sustained economic development and to help Vermont reach its climate goals.<br />  </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Neighborhood%202.png?itok=FjhurOBQ" width="480" height="302" alt="Neighborhood homes" title="Neighborhood homes" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Wed, 04 May 2022 13:26:10 +0000 Leslie Black-Plumeau 15061 at https://www.vhfa.org VHFA issues RFP for Manufactured Home Technical Assistance https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/vhfa-issues-rfp-manufactured-home-technical-assistance <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>Vermont Housing Finance Agency (VHFA) is seeking an organization or consortium to provide technical assistance to Manufactured Home Communities (MHC) to assist them in completing financial analyses or preparing applications to meet their infrastructure needs. Applications are due on May 25, 2022.</p> <p>Manufactured Home Communities are the largest source of unsubsidized affordable housing in the nation and are a vital resource for Vermont. However, as described in a <a href="https://vhcb.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/pubs/MHP-Study-2019.pdf">2019 report commissioned by the Vermont Housing &amp; Conservation Board (VHCB)</a>, MHCs face unique and extensive financial, infrastructure, and operational challenges. MHCs are increasingly reliant on state and federal programs to meet community needs, but often lack the capacity to complete complex financial analyses or pull together applications for funding. </p> <p>VHFA is seeking to provide up to $10,000 to support steps towards increasing that capacity and expanding the resources available to MHCs. Activities may include support in pursuing federal grants or other funding, staff capacity, technology, specialized training, or others approved in consultation with VHFA.</p> <p>A full description of the program goals and instructions on how to apply is available in the <a href="https://vhfa.org/sites/default/files/initiatives/MHC_TA_RFP.pdf">Request for Proposals on VHFA’s website</a>. <br />  </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/MHP.png?itok=Sb1KETTZ" width="480" height="302" alt="Manufactured home community" title="Manufactured home community" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Fri, 29 Apr 2022 12:26:27 +0000 Mia Watson 15059 at https://www.vhfa.org Understanding Vermont’s vacant homes https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/understanding-vermont-vacant-homes <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>A recent article in the <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2022/03/10/realestate/vacancy-rate-by-state.html">New York Times</a> suggested that Vermont is ranked first in the nation in vacant homes. This may be surprising to many Vermonters, given the state’s extremely tight housing market. Diving into the data more closely shows that the vast majority of Vermont’s vacant homes are seasonal or vacation homes, which are considered to be vacant under the Census Bureau’s methodology, but not necessarily available to buyers or renters.  Vacation homes have been prominent in Vermont’s housing stock for decades due to the state’s ski resorts and long-time desirability among tourists.  Vermont’s long-standing preponderance of seasonal homes offers a stark contrast to its extreme shortage of another type of vacant home—those for rent or sale. Only two other states had lower rates of these homes than Vermont in 2019. </p> <p><strong>Vacant homes</strong></p> <p>The best data source available for vacant homes is the latest Decennial Census conducted in April 2020. That data shows that 19% of the total stock is vacant in Vermont, while 21% of Maine’s housing stock is vacant. This pattern has been consistent for years. In the 2010 Census, Maine had 23% of its stock vacant and Vermont had 20%. In 2000, Maine had 20% and Vermont had 18%, consistently placing Maine #1 and Vermont #2 overall among states*. </p> <p>But what is a <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/housing-stock/vacant-homes">vacant home</a>? The <a href="https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial/2020/technical-documentation/complete-tech-docs/summary-file/2020Census_PL94_171Redistricting_StatesTechDoc_English.pdf">Census Bureau</a> categorizes any home not occupied by a full-time renter or homeowner as vacant. Seasonal, occasional use, or vacation homes; homes for rent; homes used primarily as short term rentals; homes listed for sale; and homes under renovation are all considered to be vacant by the Census Bureau. </p> <p><strong>Seasonal homes</strong></p> <p>Seventy-five percent of Vermont’s vacant homes are “seasonal, occasional use, or vacation homes,” according to the latest American Community Survey estimates from the Census Bureau. These homes are either occupied by someone who usually resides elsewhere or were vacant during the Census survey but intended for seasonal, recreational or occasional use. </p> <p>Vermont’s seasonal homes account for about 17% of the state’s total housing stock, according to the Census Bureau. Although the rate of seasonal or occasional use homes in Vermont has <a href="https://www.census.gov/data/tables/time-series/dec/coh-vacation.html">increased</a> somewhat over time, it has always been high. In 1950 it was 9%, 15% in 1980 and 17% in 1990. Vermont is high-ranked among states in all of those years. Essex and Grand Isle counties have the largest share seasonal home rates in Vermont, but the towns with the largest shares are resort towns like Stowe. </p> <p>While some of these seasonal homes could be converted to different types of usage, including being sold or rented to a household to live there full-time, many properties are unlikely to change status. At least some seasonal homes are unheated hunting cabins, lakeside camps with limited septic systems, or condominiums within ski resorts that are not suitable or not intended for year-round use. </p> <p>Although the Vermont Department of Taxes also categorizes homes by type, it differs from the Census Bureau in the way it identifies “seasonal properties.” Instead of how much time a resident spends in the home, the state’s property Grand List uses a home’s physical characteristics to indicate if a property is “seasonal”, such as lack of insulation or heat.  For this reason, a home used as a second home by the current owner but that has the physical characteristics required for year-round living, is not likely to be categorized as a “seasonal property” in Vermont’s Grand List, according to a recent <a href="https://legislature.vermont.gov/Documents/2022/WorkGroups/House Natural/Bills in Other Committees/S.226 - An act relating to expanding access to safe and affordable housing/W~Graham Campbell~S.226 - Taxes and Second Homes~3-30-2022.pdf">summary</a> from the Vermont Joint Fiscal Office.  </p> <p><strong>Short-term rentals</strong></p> <p>A small portion of all Vermont homes are used as short-term rentals, either occasionally or consistently, according to <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/housing-stock/short-term-rentals">data</a> provided by AirDNA and analyzed by VHFA. Before the pandemic, about 2.5% of all homes in Vermont were listed as short-term rentals at some point during an average month.  About 1.4% were available as short-term rentals consistently throughout the month.  Although the number of homes listed as short-term rentals fell during the pandemic, it has increased again recently nearly back up to 2019 levels. </p> <p>It is likely that many homes listed consistently as short-term rentals are counted as seasonal homes by the Census. Towns with the most short-term rental listings are consistently the ski resort towns of Stowe, Killington, Ludlow, West Dover and Warren. These towns are also the state’s top locations for the <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/housing-stock/housing-units">number of seasonal homes</a>.  </p> <p><strong>Renter and owner vacancies</strong></p> <p>In contrast to its extremely high rate of seasonal homes, Vermont has an extremely low percentage of homes available for rent or sale compared to other states. Vermont is estimated to have had the third lowest housing vacancy rate in the country (2.4%) immediately before the pandemic. Vacancy rates are typically examined by comparing the number of homes for rent (or sale) combined with the number rented (or owned) but not yet occupied with the total number of homes in the housing stock. Rental and owner vacancy rates can be difficult to accurately measure. Because few homes are for rent or sale at any given time, it can be difficult for a Census Bureau survey taker to identify them. We will likely not have statistically reliable town-level rental and owner vacancy rate data for another few months, until the Census Bureau releases more detailed results from the 2020 Decennial Census.</p> <p class="text-align-center"><img alt="vacancy pie chart" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" src="https://www.vhfa.org//sites/default/files/vacancy-pie-chart.JPG" /></p> <p>Among rental homes specifically, Census Bureau surveys suggest that Vermont’s vacancy rate was around 3.4%, pre-pandemic. Chittenden County’s was around 2% before the pandemic and appeared to be hovering around 1% in mid-2021, when local real estate firm Allen, Brooks and Minor did their own survey of that county. Experts usually think that a market is healthy when it has a rental vacancy rate around 4-8%. The national rental vacancy rate is currently around 5.6%.  </p> <p>It is less common to discuss owner vacancy rates, but VHFA’s 2020 State Housing Needs Assessment estimated that Vermont’s homeowner vacancy rate was 1.4%. An optimal owner vacancy rate is probably somewhere between 1.3 and 2%, so pre-pandemic, Vermont’s rate was fairly low. Housing experts tend to use other indicators like sale prices, inventory, and days on market to assess demand in the homeowner market. </p> <p>Based on the state’s recent historic low in <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/homeownership-costs/days-on-market-type">days on the home sales market</a> and reported challenges for apartment seekers, it is likely that Vermont’s rental and owner vacancy rates have declined even further recently.</p> <p><strong>Other vacant homes</strong></p> <p>Next to seasonal homes, the largest vacant home group counted by the Census Bureau is “other vacant” homes. Homes can fall into this category for many reasons, including homes that are under renovation or homes held vacant for personal reasons of the owner. However, since this category can also include foreclosed or abandoned homes, it is often used by housing researchers as an indicator of area housing stock decline. Although Vermont’s rate of “other vacant” homes is lower than the national average, examining this indicator by town can flag potential local housing problems, such as the high rate of these homes in Rutland in 2019.  </p> <p>Understanding what a vacant home means is essential to interpreting the data and to make policy recommendations. The renter, owner and vacation home markets have both overlapping and separate dynamics that must be considered in context to develop policies that can make housing more affordable for Vermont households. </p> <p><em>*The New York Times report that ranked Vermont first in the country in vacant homes is based on an analysis by LendingTree, which says that its methodology is based on “the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2020 American Community Survey with one-year experimental estimates”.  This methodology could not be verified by VHFA. The Decennial Census data cited above is widely regarded as a more comprehensive survey of Vermont’s households than the American Community Survey. </em><br />  </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Vacant-Homes.JPG?itok=ZHDDGbwA" width="480" height="313" alt="vacant-home-graph" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Thu, 21 Apr 2022 12:54:52 +0000 Leslie Black-Plumeau 15058 at https://www.vhfa.org Ewelina Kowalik joins VHFA as Senior Finance and Accounting Analyst https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/ewelina-kowalik-joins-vhfa-senior-finance-and-accounting-analyst <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>Executive Director Maura Collins announced that Vermont Housing Finance Agency (VHFA) has selected Ewelina Kowalik (she/her) of South Burlington for the newly created role of Senior Finance and Accounting Analyst.</p> <p>Kowalik is an accountant by training and has 14 years of accounting and finance experience. She comes to VHFA from the Community Development Trust, an affordable housing investor in New York City, where she was a Senior Accountant. Kowalik has a Bachelor of Arts in Accounting &amp; Information Systems and a Bachelor of Arts in Economics from Queens College of the City University of New York.</p> <p>"We were delighted to find a candidate with strong accounting expertise as well as a background in affordable housing finance," Collins remarked. "Ewelina's experience and skills will be an asset to our Finance Team.”</p> <p>In her role as Senior Finance and Accounting Analyst, Kowalik will work with VHFA’s Finance and Accounting Department as well as with the Agency’s external partners. The new position will be involved in data analytics, bond and debt issuance and associated compliance and reporting, and a wide range of Agency accounting and budget functions. <br />  </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Ewelina%20Kowalik%20hire.png?itok=eaL2s4tS" width="480" height="302" alt="Ewelina Kowalik" title="Ewelina Kowalik" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Wed, 20 Apr 2022 12:59:17 +0000 Steve Gronlund 15056 at https://www.vhfa.org Save the date for the 2022 Statewide Housing Conference https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/save-date-2022-statewide-housing-conference <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>Planning has begun for the 2022 Statewide Housing Conference. After cancelling the conference in 2020, resuming this in-person, biennial conference feels like a welcome step out of the upheaval of the COVID-19 pandemic towards Vermont’s “new normal.” </p> <p>This is the only conference that brings together housing professionals from across the state to cover a comprehensive range of topics like housing development, single family financing, affordable housing, housing policy, local planning for housing, homelessness, and other special topics. Throughout this year’s conference, we will frame topics in terms of what each of us in our various roles can do to solve the housing crisis faced by Vermont. This event typically draws over 400 attendees and evaluations are consistently positive about the opportunities to network, learn, and be inspired. </p> <p>The 2022 event will be held on <strong>Wednesday, November 16</strong> at the Hilton Burlington. Registration will not open until later this summer, but please save the date.</p> <p>There are <a href="https://vhfa.org/conference-sponsor-registration">numerous sponsorship opportunities available</a> and include <a href="https://vhfa.org/sites/default/files/Conference-Sponsor-Benefits.pdf">benefits</a> like free registrations and a variety of opportunities to promote your organization. Signing up to be a sponsor is easy through <a href="https://vhfa.org/conference-sponsor-registration">our online form</a>.<br />  </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Conference%20blog%20post.png?itok=en6tWlbU" width="480" height="302" alt="Housing conference header" title="Vermont Statewide Housing Conference" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Tue, 19 Apr 2022 13:20:35 +0000 Mia Watson 15055 at https://www.vhfa.org Future strategies to promote homeownership opportunity for BIPOC Vermonters https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/future-strategies-promote-homeownership-opportunity-bipoc-vermonters <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p><em>This article was written by VHFA Spring Housing Fellow Christina Cramer</em></p> <p>April is National Fair Housing Month which celebrates the passage of the Fair Housing Act. Passed in 1968, the act prohibits discrimination in the sale, rental and financing of housing based on race, color, national origin, religion, and gender. Despite the many achievements made in the decades since the law was passed, BIPOC (Black, Indigenous, and people of color) Vermonters have yet to achieve equality in housing opportunity. Vermont remains one of the least diverse states in the nation and has one of the highest homeownership gaps between Black and white residents in the country. 72 percent of white Vermont households <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/population-household/race-tenure">own their homes</a>, compared to just 24 percent of Black households. High home prices, in addition to other factors, are pushing homeownership out of reach for many first time home buyers. Most disadvantaged by this trend are BIPOC Vermonters, as they have other historical and current factors that impede their abilities to become homeowners. </p> <p>A new review paper, <a href="https://vhfa.org/sites/default/files/publications/Homeownership-Economic-Opportunity-BIPOC-Vermonters_0.pdf"><em>Homeownership and Economic Opportunity for BIPOC Vermonters</em></a>, delves into the history of systemic and institutional racism as it applies to homeownership and its influence on multigenerational wealth. It also discusses the challenges and opportunities for encouraging BIPOC homeownership. It further examines the benefits of homeownership and its intersectionality with other sectors such as education, health, upward mobility, and other quality of life issues. </p> <p>The paper examines the current state of legislative and municipal initiatives nationwide to address the housing related wealth gap. Though many are pilot programs, they provide a proof of concept for low income housing initiatives that may be adopted by communities to alleviate their lack of affordable housing or promote their diversity programs. The paper discusses the current housing situation in Vermont and provides insight into some remedial actions that would promote homeownership and diversity through various means. The paper highlights the importance of funding initiatives designed to increase home availability and affordability for first time home buyers. </p> <p><i>Note: In addition to conducting and sharing housing research, VHFA also administers mortgage programs for eligible Vermont home buyers. Although we seek to apply best practices throughout VHFA’s activities, this post is not an announcement of new VHFA mortgage programs or changes to existing VHFA mortgage programs.</i></p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/BIPOC%20homeownership.png?itok=DwPQjimx" width="480" height="302" alt="Black family in front of a single family home" title="BIPOC homeownership" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Tue, 19 Apr 2022 00:28:00 +0000 Mia Watson 15052 at https://www.vhfa.org AHP funding application opens June 6 https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/ahp-funding-application-opens-june-6 <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>The Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston (FHLBB)'s <a href="https://www.fhlbboston.com/fhlbank-boston/affordable-housing-program#/">Affordable Housing Program (AHP)</a> will begin to accept applications on June 6, 2022. The program will award a minimum of $10.6 million in subsidy funding through member institutions to organizations promoting homeownership and rental housing opportunities for low income households. This funding will support critical housing resources during a time of extreme housing shortage, affordability crisis and rising development costs.</p> <p>To assist applicants, FHLB Boston will be hosting a series of <a href="https://www.fhlbboston.com/fhlbank-boston/ahp-training-materials#/">online trainings and Q&amp;A sessions</a> in May and June. The online trainings will cover all aspects of the application, including <a href="https://web-prd.fhlbboston.com/api/contentservices/api/contentstream/fhlbank-boston/2022AHPNoticeofChangesedited.pdf">important information about program changes</a>. </p> <p>Visit the <a href="https://www.fhlbboston.com/fhlbank-boston/ahp-eligibility-scoring#/">AHP website</a> for more application information and the <a href="https://web-prd.fhlbboston.com/api/contentservices/api/contentstream/fhlbank-boston/2022AHPImplementationPlanMarch.pdf">AHP Implementation Plan</a>. The online application round closes July 28, 2022.</p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/FHLB%20Boston.png?itok=ydJYyyXH" width="480" height="303" alt="Boston skyline" title="FHLB Boston" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Thu, 14 Apr 2022 18:04:09 +0000 Mia Watson 15050 at https://www.vhfa.org April is Fair Housing Month https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/april-fair-housing-month-6 <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>April is Fair Housing Month, an opportunity to celebrate the anniversary of the passage of the 1968 Federal Fair Housing Act, while also increasing our efforts to end housing discrimination, expand housing opportunity and raise awareness of housing rights.</p> <p>The <a href="https://fairhousingmonthvt.org/">Fair Housing Project </a>of the Champlain Valley Office of Economic Opportunity (CVOEO) and statewide partners are hosting a number of events throughout the month. These include: </p> <ul> <li><u>Fair Housing Fridays:</u> A series of informational discussions on topics such as "Why Aren’t We Building the Housing We Need?", "Unique Challenges and Opportunities of Mobile Home Parks" and "Is Building More the Cure?". (12:30pm Fridays via Zoom and Facebook live with recordings available for later viewing.)</li> <li><u>Workshops and Trainings:</u> This series of educational events includes opportunities for the tenants, landlords, and the general public to learn about fair housing rights and responsibilities and discuss current issues.</li> <li><u>Library activities</u>: Libraries around the state are holding book discussions, StoryWalks, art projects and other community events.</li> <li><a href="https://fairhousingmonthvt.org/asw-x-cvoeo-art-contest">Community art contest</a>: Arts So Wonderful contest and exhibit on the theme of “What makes a thriving, inclusive community?” Open to all ages, with cash prizes for youth and adults. The submission deadline is April 24 with an opening reception at the gallery in South Burlington on April 29. </li> </ul> <p>The full schedule of events with registration links is available on the <a href="https://fairhousingmonthvt.org/event-calendar">Fair Housing Month website</a>. </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Fair%20Housing%20Month.png?itok=koz6jgBC" width="480" height="303" alt="Fair Housing Month" title="Fair Housing Month" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Tue, 05 Apr 2022 15:11:43 +0000 Mia Watson 15046 at https://www.vhfa.org Public feedback sought for building energy codes https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/public-feedback-sought-building-energy-codes <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>The <a href="https://publicservice.vermont.gov/content/building-energy-standards-update">Vermont Department of Public Service (PSD) </a>will soon begin updating Vermont's building energy codes, with the target effective date of Fall or Winter 2023. The code update process will include multiple opportunities for stakeholders to provide input and feedback.</p> <p>Vermont's Building Energy Standards set minimum efficiency requirements for new and renovated buildings. The standards are designed to reduce energy use and emissions over the life of a building, saving money in the long term and helping Vermont meet its climate goals. Vermont's building energy codes include its <a href="https://publicservice.vermont.gov/energy_efficiency/rbes">Residential Building Energy Standards</a> (RBES) and <a href="https://publicservice.vermont.gov/energy_efficiency/cbes">Commercial Building Energy Standards</a> (CBES). </p> <p>There will be two RBES public stakeholder meetings and two CBES public stakeholder meetings, coordinated with the Energy Futures Group. The first set of meetings will present the proposed changes and gather input from the public for the development of the draft 2023 RBES and CBES. The second set of meetings will present the final draft of the proposed 2023 RBES and CBES codes and solicit feedback. These meetings will take place in April and late May and will be held remotely. </p> <p>The first set of public stakeholder meetings will take place the week of April 4:</p> <p>RBES Public Stakeholder Meeting: Wednesday, April 6 from 1-3pm (<a href="https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__linkprotect.cudasvc.com_url-3Fa-3Dhttps-253a-252f-252fenergyfuturesgroup.us1.list-2Dmanage.com-252ftrack-252fclick-253fu-253d0710e7ee0e5eabebd1585ff23-2526id-253df9e7784462-2526e-253dfd4856cb2c-26c-3DE-2C1-2CjIxOXIBhPyBT-2Ds2VWrTq7CLgPuboatk71EESHmwb1cckS2yqSRMx4TwQx6rpRQ7dBiTF86iQ9U2CdVM3lTjzZWfe-2Da5zP-5FF-5FbpCu-5F2AqiWCBYi3YxwGFYJC8B1ns-26typo-3D1&amp;d=DwMGaQ&amp;c=euGZstcaTDllvimEN8b7jXrwqOf-v5A_CdpgnVfiiMM&amp;r=7NYVxx4NsoAymku0ry1ozSWtj9SdauYGNu1C0zoAyMM&amp;m=qkR_yotu1Nytizhn1A8hUxYfEkQqS0txtK6lTlsHmSk&amp;s=NJPGijKXv7E4hdIIWo9XfOnMQEn8uyidTt5k3oKxRn4&amp;e=">Register here</a>)<br /> CBES Public Stakeholder Meeting: Friday, April 8 from 10am-12pm (<a href="https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__linkprotect.cudasvc.com_url-3Fa-3Dhttps-253a-252f-252fenergyfuturesgroup.us1.list-2Dmanage.com-252ftrack-252fclick-253fu-253d0710e7ee0e5eabebd1585ff23-2526id-253dc4fbd42899-2526e-253dfd4856cb2c-26c-3DE-2C1-2C-2DS5bXmM2QixkK0Q5NmDg20VZ6NAdN9lVAkOTb6NNKLrLsQmiAwg5-2DZnC36SMmhJNlkqC9Oa8vmpEZuU2Yoaazcpz59TOpF7liA9U7K-2DF5Jk-2C-26typo-3D1&amp;d=DwMGaQ&amp;c=euGZstcaTDllvimEN8b7jXrwqOf-v5A_CdpgnVfiiMM&amp;r=7NYVxx4NsoAymku0ry1ozSWtj9SdauYGNu1C0zoAyMM&amp;m=qkR_yotu1Nytizhn1A8hUxYfEkQqS0txtK6lTlsHmSk&amp;s=9iUUxXC7BNUzx5MbmBkdefWc3NkJ7Dpe92LXHzwHo1M&amp;e=">Register here</a>)</p> <p>The agenda for the public stakeholder meetings is the following:<br /> 1. Code update process overview and timeframe<br /> 2. Goals and Energy Use Intensity, or EUI, targets<br /> 3. Code update summary<br /> 4. Walk through each code update recommendation<br /> 5. Other recommendations to add</p> <p>Contact Liz Bourguet at the Energy Futures Group (<a href="mailto:ebourguet@energyfuturesgroup.com">ebourguet@energyfuturesgroup.com</a>) with any questions.</p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Residential%20Building%20Energy%20Code.png?itok=iheRFexY" width="480" height="302" alt="Heating system installation" title="Heating system installation" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Wed, 30 Mar 2022 15:36:16 +0000 Mia Watson 15045 at https://www.vhfa.org Funding available for farmworker housing repair https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/funding-available-farmworker-housing-repair <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>Champlain Housing Trust (CHT) is now accepting applications for the <a href="https://www.getahome.org/vermont-farmworker-housing-repair-loan-program/">Vermont Farmworker Housing Repair Loan Program</a>. The program allows farm owners to make repairs and improvements to their farmworker housing to help improve the health and welfare of the farm workforce. The application deadline is April 29.</p> <p>A <a href="https://vhcb.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/pubs/Vermont-Farmworker-Housing-Needs-Assessment-Study-4-2021.pdf">2021 report</a> commissioned by the Vermont Housing &amp; Conservation Board (VHCB) estimates that there are around 600 dwellings housing about 2,000 hired farmworkers in Vermont, with the majority based in Addison, Franklin and Orleans Counties. </p> <p>Although no common quality standard or systematic evaluation of farmworker housing in the state is available, the report noted significant reported issues, including noise, overcrowding, cleanliness, lack of access to water and bathrooms, temperature control and safety. Over half of the workers living in housing on farms are migrant workers. In addition to receiving low wages and experiencing difficult working conditions, many face language barriers and lack the required authorizations to work in the US, making it very difficult for them to effectively advocate for better living conditions.</p> <p>At the same time, Vermont farm owners face significant economic uncertainty, and often lack the funding to make significant repairs to farmworker housing. However, the VHCB report estimated that 63% of farm worker dwellings could be rehabilitated with small or moderate projects costing less than $50,000. Farmers surveyed for the report were generally receptive to making improvements if they were given access to grants or low interest loans and had access to technical support. </p> <p>The Farmworker Housing Repair Loan Program can help both farmers and farm workers by offering farmers zero percent loans of up to $30,000 for repairs and improvements. The loans can be forgiven over a period of 10 years as long as the improved housing continues to be maintained and used for farmworker housing. Eligible improvements can include wastewater systems, air sealing and insulation, noise mitigation measures, overcrowding relief, food prep and storage improvements, mold remediation, electrical and plumbing upgrades and roof replacements. Support will be provided for farmers and farmworkers through UVM Extension.</p> <p>More eligibility information and application materials are available on <a href="https://www.getahome.org/vermont-farmworker-housing-repair-loan-program/">CHT’s website</a>. Applications are due April 29, 2022, after which applications will be accepted on a rolling basis depending on funding availability.  <br />  </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Farm.png?itok=AT9Z88Il" width="480" height="303" alt="Picture of barn" title="Farm" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Mon, 21 Mar 2022 12:35:59 +0000 Mia Watson 15042 at https://www.vhfa.org Report shows renters face continued challenges post-pandemic https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/report-shows-renters-face-continued-challenges-post-pandemic <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p><em>This article was written by VHFA Spring Housing Fellow Christina Cramer</em></p> <p>The Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University recently published its annual report, <a href="https://www.jchs.harvard.edu/americas-rental-housing-2022"><em>America’s Rental Housing 2022</em></a>, which thoroughly examines all aspects of the rental housing market. The study detailed the demographics of rental housing, rental housing stock, the rental markets, rental affordability, and the challenges associated with rental housing. The study suggests that federal support associated with the pandemic relief was beneficial to helping families remain in their homes, but finds that renters continue to face significant affordability challenges. </p> <p>During the second year of the pandemic, rental housing demand rose substantially. A lack of available homes and increased prices kept those of higher income from buying while lower-income houses tended to face job losses which had a substantial impact on their ability to pay rent. In the third quarter of 2021, 23 percent of all households with incomes below $25,000, as well as 15 percent of those with incomes between $25,000 and $50,000, were behind on their home payments. </p> <p>While households of all socioeconomic statuses can rent, people <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/income-employment/tenure-household-income">with low incomes</a> and <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/population-household/race-tenure">households of color</a> are far more likely to be renters.</p> <p><img alt="Renter vs homeowners chart" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" src="https://www.vhfa.org//sites/default/files/Harvard%20JCHS%20Renters.PNG" /></p> <p>Households further cost burdened by the pandemic had to make basic tradeoffs which jeopardized basic health needs and well-being. Construction and use restrictions have left certain properties not available to rent, in addition to the already available and aging rental places that need significant investment to ensure they are safe for occupancy.</p> <p>The report found that historic investments in emergency assistance and eviction prevention programs were broadly effective in keeping renters housed. Evictions remained 40 percent below historical averages as of November 2021, after most eviction moratoriums ended, which suggests that emergency rental assistance and income support had a significant impact. The report states, “The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated the urgent need for a permanent funded housing safety net.” </p> <p>Vermont was able to assist families in existing rentals to remain in their homes through financial assistance. The <a href="https://erap.vsha.org/">Vermont Emergency Rental Assistance Program (VERAP) </a>was created to help renters who were dealing with financial challenges during the pandemic. VERAP assists with rental and utility assistance in addition to helping pay rent and past due balances. As of March 16, VERAP has provided approximately <a href="https://app.powerbi.com/view?r=eyJrIjoiYTgyZDFmOTAtMDFhNS00YWFhLWJjMjctZTU3NjdjNzMzMDdjIiwidCI6IjFjNzE0NDkxLTQyMzctNGExOC1iYmIyLWIyOWRjOWNhYWQ4ZSIsImMiOjF9&amp;pageName=ReportSection89038794189094e91409">$68 million to tenants</a> in Vermont. The highest dollar amount given has been to Chittenden County at approximately $24 million, followed by Rutland, Franklin and Windsor counties respectively.</p> <p><span style="font-size: 1.125rem;">The report notes, “Longer term, however, building more affordable rental housing is crucial—not only to alleviate some of the pressures on lower-income households but also to ensure equal opportunity to those long underserved by and discriminated against in the housing market. Significant spending is also needed to improve the resiliency, sustainability, and accessibility of the existing stock. While the private sector has an important role to play in all these efforts, it is up to the public sector to craft well-designed regulatory and fiscal incentives that will spur substantial investment in affordable housing.” </span></p> <p>In order to increase the availability of rental housing and improve affordability in Vermont, new housing needs to be built. Vermont has a low rental vacancy rate, being approximately 2-3% behind the national average. In some places like Chittenden County, the currently rate hovers around 1%, which makes it difficult for renters of all income levels to find an apartment, and makes it increasingly near-impossible for low-income households. Creating additional rental housing takes planning, construction time, and labor availability. Starter homes that cost less than $250,000 also need to be available so that more renters have a home purchase option, freeing up more rental units. </p> <p>Unfortunately, permitting process delays, material shortages, and lack of skilled trades professionals have made the building and renovation experience costly and <a href="https://vhfa.org/sites/default/files/publications/State-Residential-Development-2021.pdf">protracted</a>. Some initiatives to address affordable housing are in progress. Legislature is currently considering an omnibus housing bill (S. 226), which includes funds to build more affordable housing, repair rental units and loosen zoning restrictions. </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Apartment%20building.png?itok=GbI_QTWt" width="480" height="303" alt="Apartment building" title="Apartment building" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Thu, 17 Mar 2022 12:28:40 +0000 Mia Watson 15039 at https://www.vhfa.org Watch out for homeowner relief scams https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/watch-out-homeowner-relief-scams <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>As many states including Vermont begin to award <a href="https://vhfa.org/news/blog/governor-scott-announces-new-homeowner-assistance-program-help-keep-homeowners-housed">millions in financial assistance</a> to homeowners impacted by the pandemic, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has issued warnings of <a href="https://www.news10.com/news/ny-news/beware-of-homeowner-assistance-fund-scams-ag-warns/">predatory fraud schemes</a> targeting desperate homeowners looking to avoid foreclosure and stay in their homes. </p> <p>Vermont homeowners who have suffered a financial loss due to COVID-19 are eligible for relief through two main channels: loan modification offered through a mortgage servicer, and one-time grants for past-due expenses including mortgage payments, utilities, property taxes and property association fees offered through Vermont Housing Finance Agency (VHFA)’s <a href="https://vermonthap.vhfa.org/">Homeowner Assistance Program (HAP)</a>. VHFA has produced an <a href="https://youtu.be/Pgfj6lPzHgo">informational video</a> discussing the differences between these resources. </p> <p>Unfortunately, both programs may be targets of scammers trying to exploit homeowners. The scammers may claim that they are housing counselors, lawyers or government representatives who will handle all the details of a deal with the mortgage lender or the HAP application but will instead charge unfair fees or steal your home payments. </p> <p>Here are some tips to avoid falling victim to these schemes: </p> <p><strong>1. Use caution when accepting offers of financial assistance. </strong></p> <p>Only VHFA can approve you for a HAP grant, and no one other than your mortgage lender can agree to make modifications to your loan. If an offer for assistance from a third party seems too good to be true, it likely isn’t real.  </p> <p><strong>2. Don’t pay upfront fees. </strong></p> <p>Applying for HAP is free, and homeowners can <a href="https://vermonthap.vhfa.org/">apply on their own online</a>. If you need help applying, you should contact one of our <a href="https://www.vhfa.org/news/HAP/affiliates">local affiliated organizations</a>, who will help you for free. Homeowners should be wary of anyone charging a fee to apply. </p> <p>While mortgage refinancing or other loan modification programs may have fees associated with them, it is illegal to request upfront fees for mortgage assistance.  </p> <p>Scammers may also encourage you to pay for a forensic audit or pay to participate in a lawsuit against a lender to force a modification to your loan. Neither is necessary to allow you to modify your loan or receive HAP funding. </p> <p><strong>3. Don’t stop making payments without speaking directly to your mortgage lender or service provider.  </strong></p> <p>VHFA encourages you to stay in touch with your mortgage lender and service providers throughout the HAP application process and to keep making payments to them if you are able. Scammers may try to get homeowners to pay them directly and discourage homeowners from speaking to their lender or service provider.  </p> <p><strong>4. Don’t sign any documents giving up the title to your home. </strong></p> <p>Your property title is proof that you own your home. Scammers may try to convince you to surrender the title or deed to your home as part of a deal that will let you stay as a renter and eventually buy the home back. There is no legitimate program that offers this arrangement. Carefully review any documents you are asked to sign. </p> <p><strong>5. Protect your personal information. </strong></p> <p>Do not give your personal financial information, including your bank account number, Social Security number, or the name of your loan servicer to an unrecognized caller, someone knocking on your door or in response to an unexpected piece of mail. </p> <p>If you aren’t sure whether an email or a call is from VHFA, you should call our hotline directly at (833) 221-4208. </p> <p><strong>6. Speak with a HUD-approved counselor for free. </strong></p> <p><a href="https://apps.hud.gov/offices/hsg/sfh/hcc/fc/index.cfm?webListAction=search&amp;searchstate=VT&amp;filterSvc=dfc">HUD-certified counselors</a> are available to provide free counseling to help you evaluate your options. They can confirm whether an offer of assistance is legitimate. </p> <p> </p> <p>If you believe that you have been the target of a scam, you should contact <a href="https://www.vhfa.org/www.hudoig.gov/hotline">HUD’s Office of Inspector General (OIG)</a> at 1-800-347-3735 or call the <a href="https://ago.vermont.gov/contact-page/">Vermont Attorney General’s</a> Consumer Assistance hotline at (800) 649-2424.  </p> <p><em>The VT Homeowner Assistance Program is being supported, in whole or in part, by federal award number HAFP-0040 awarded to the State of Vermont by the US Department of the Treasury.</em></p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/HAP%20scams%20blog.png?itok=uLinaLjp" width="480" height="303" alt="Watch out for homeowner relief scams" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Mon, 14 Mar 2022 12:53:09 +0000 Mia Watson 15034 at https://www.vhfa.org State funding available to replace wells and septic systems https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/state-funding-available-replace-wells-and-septic-systems <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>A new program from the <a href="https://anr.vermont.gov/content/funding-install-or-replace-water-or-wastewater-systems">Vermont Agency of Natural Resources</a> has funding for low and moderate income Vermont homeowners to replace their home water or wastewater systems. Applications for the first round of funding are open through April 15, 2022.</p> <p>Low-income Vermont homeowners often find it challenging to repair or replace failing on-site water (such as wells) or wastewater systems (such as septic tanks and leach fields), due both to the high cost and difficulty in navigating the regulatory landscape. These homeowners are disproportionately likely to have been financially impacted by the pandemic. In response, Governor Scott has proposed $3 million in ARPA funding to provide safe and reliable drinking water sources and wastewater disposal systems. The General Assembly provided an initial $1 million to support this work, and additional funding is anticipated in future fiscal years. </p> <p>The Healthy Homes Initiative On-Site will provide assistance to low to moderate income residential property owners, including owner-occupied multi-family properties with up to four units. </p> <p>Applications for the first round of funding are open through April 15, 2022. Starting April 16, 2022, applications will be accepted on a rolling basis and funding will be provided as available. Detailed eligibility guidelines and application instructions are available on the <a href="https://anr.vermont.gov/content/funding-install-or-replace-water-or-wastewater-systems">Vermont Agency of Natural Resources website</a>.</p> <p>The program will also host a <a href="https://bit.ly/3Hm57mL">webinar on March 18, 2022</a> from 12:00-1:00 pm (Call In/Audio Only at 802-828-7667, Phone Conference ID: 361 521 6#) with more information about the application and award process.</p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Kitchen%20sink.png?itok=dlV39EAJ" width="480" height="303" alt="Kitchen sink with running water" title="Kitchen sink " loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Wed, 09 Mar 2022 13:33:01 +0000 Mia Watson 15031 at https://www.vhfa.org Protecting housing affordability through the Clean Heat Standard https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/protecting-housing-affordability-through-clean-heat-standard <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>The mission of the Vermont Housing Finance Agency (VHFA) is to finance and promote affordable, safe, and decent housing opportunities for low- and moderate-income Vermonters.</p> <p>Embedded in that mission is the need to consider the holistic cost of renting and owning, meaning not just the upfront cost of housing, but also the cost of living in it long term.</p> <p>Heating inefficient homes is a significant expense. This particularly hurts the most vulnerable Vermonters since very low-income households spend 23% of their total income on heating costs, on average. Add to that unexpected shifts in fossil fuel costs like we are now seeing as a result of the Ukrainian crisis, and even more pressure is put on limited Vermont budgets.</p> <p>A sustainable solution to this problem must do two things for low- and moderate- income Vermonters: 1) provide comprehensive home weatherization to reduce overall energy usage; and 2) increase the availability of lower-cost, stably priced, heating options.</p> <p>The Clean Heat Standard is a vitally important policy that can help achieve both goals simultaneously. Recommended by the Vermont Climate Council, the Clean Heat Standard is a powerful tool for reducing the cost of heating for Vermonters through less fossil fuel dependence and by making clean heat options more accessible and affordable.</p> <p>This proposal is not without its critics who rightfully worry that the cost of heating our homes could increase as we move to these cleaner options. What can be missed, though, is how the impact of climate change causes deeper poverty when the only housing options for the lowest earners among us – especially renters and those on fixed incomes – are inefficient homes dependent on price-volatile fossil fuels.</p> <p>Pricing in the total costs of a pollutant, whether it be greenhouse gas emissions, cigarette smoke, or traffic, can increase the price to the consumer, but it doesn’t mean that the cost isn’t already being borne by Vermonters in other ways.</p> <p>Instead, we must accurately price these externalities into the cost of fossil fuels, while simultaneously weatherizing our homes and subsidizing the switch to cleaner options for low- and moderate-income Vermonters. This is how we meet our carbon reduction goals while equitably holding those most impacted harmless.</p> <p>Some say that the impact on low- and moderate-income Vermonters is a reason to not implement the Clean Heat Standard, but instead it is vulnerable Vermonters who are a driving force of why we must act.</p> <p>Today, too many Vermonters are stuck on the roller coaster ride of prices for propane, kerosene, and fuel oil, which are the <a href="http://www.eanvt.org/chs-overview">most expensive</a> and price-volatile home heating options. In contrast, heat pumps and advanced wood heating options offer both lower costs and greater price stability, year after year.</p> <p>Since a common challenge is the up-front cost of installing new, cleaner heating options, the Clean Heat Standard is designed to address this. To meet the requirements of reducing pollution over time, the Clean Heat Standard will create a funding mechanism for fossil fuel companies to provide their customers with options to reduce fossil fuel use, which could include grants for weatherization or incentives for installing heat pumps or advanced wood heat systems. </p> <p>Crucially, the Clean Heat Standard is designed to ensure that a significant portion of the clean heat benefits go specifically to low- and moderate-income Vermonters. Vermont must ensure that the standard is implemented in a way that protects lower income households from the financial burden of upfront, one-time heating system transition costs while also reducing ongoing heating bills. </p> <p>Vermont must keep and expand existing programs – such as seasonal fuel assistance – that help protect low-income Vermonters from the already high cost of fossil fuels. </p> <p>Any change in fossil fuel prices can also be blunted by weatherizing as many homes as possible – reducing how much it costs to stay warm – no matter how Vermonters decide to heat their homes. We can get a significant start on this work thanks to the $80 million that Governor Scott recommended in his budget to advance low- and moderate-income home weatherization.</p> <p>But for long-term, sustainable solutions, we cannot rely exclusively on one-time, short-term funding.  We also need clear and predictable policy to transform the market and serve low- and moderate-income Vermonters throughout the next decade and beyond. That clarity and longevity is why the Clean Heat Standard is critical.</p> <p>Alongside the responsibility to reduce climate pollution, we also have a responsibility to make housing more affordable for Vermonters. Helping to reduce fossil fuel dependence through comprehensive weatherization and the Clean Heat Standard is a win-win that can reduce home energy costs, especially for the low- and moderate-income Vermonters we are committed to serving. </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Weatherization.png?itok=AskpzgIl" width="480" height="300" alt="House roofline" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Wed, 02 Mar 2022 15:53:01 +0000 Maura Collins 15030 at https://www.vhfa.org VHFA is hiring! https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/vhfa-hiring-11 <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>Vermont Housing Finance Agency (VHFA) is <a href="https://vhfa.org/about/staff/employment">recruiting</a> for a Senior Finance and Accounting Analyst. Named one of the “Best Small/Medium Places to Work in Vermont” several times over the last few years, VHFA offers a competitive salary and excellent benefits. </p> <p>The Senior Finance and Accounting Analyst will work closely with each member of the Finance and Accounting Department and our external partners. This position will be involved in activities that include data analytics, bond and debt issuance and associated compliance and reporting, and a wide range of Agency accounting and budget functions. Ideally, this position will evolve and over time gain a comprehensive overview of the expertise and functionality the department is required to field. This position comes with growth potential within the Agency and is tailored for an individual who has an interest in pursuing a career as a senior public finance professional.</p> <p>VHFA is an equal opportunity employer and is committed to a diverse workplace. We highly encourage women, persons with disabilities, LGBTQ people and people from diverse racial, ethnic and cultural backgrounds to apply.</p> <p>For a detailed job description and benefits overview for this position, please see <a href="https://vhfa.org/about/staff/employment">VHFA's website</a>. To apply, send cover letter (required), resume, and references to the Human Resources Department at <a href="mailto:HR@vhfa.org">HR@vhfa.org</a>. The position will be open until filled.</p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Hiring%20Announcement.png?itok=xSIltzSV" width="480" height="303" alt="Hiring Senior Finance and Accounting Analyst" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Mon, 28 Feb 2022 13:34:14 +0000 Steve Gronlund 15014 at https://www.vhfa.org Vermont home prices increase 19% during pandemic https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/vermont-home-prices-increase-19-during-pandemic <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>The median Vermont non-vacation home sold for <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/homeownership-costs/primary-home-sales">$270,000 in 2021</a>, a 10.2% increase from the prior year, and a 19% overall increase from prices in 2019, before the pandemic. This is the largest home price increase seen since 2005. </p> <p>The <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/homeownership-costs/primary-home-sales">median single family primary home</a> sold for $280,000, the median condominium sold for $247,250 and the median mobile home with land sold for $115,000, according to Property Transfer Tax (PTT) records from the Vermont Department of Taxes*. </p> <p>Caledonia and Essex Counties have seen unusually high price growth during the pandemic (35% and 31%, respectively), although the Northeast Kingdom still has lower median home prices than much of the rest of the state. Meanwhile, although Chittenden County experienced smaller price growth than most other counties, it still has by far the highest home prices, with the median primary home selling for $385,000 in 2021.</p> <p><img alt="Home price growth chart, 2019-2021" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" height="456" src="https://www.vhfa.org//sites/default/files/Home%20price%20growth%202019-2021.png" width="626" /></p> <p>Vermont home price growth has been especially notable in resort areas, in towns like Stowe, Dover and Ludlow. Although those areas already had high home prices relative to the rest of their counties, they experienced particularly large increases during the pandemic, which may be related to increased demand from second homebuyers. However, there is also new growth in prices in towns that had been previously more affordable, including Barre City, which could be due to home buyers looking further from jobs centers than they might have in previous years due to higher prices. </p> <p>Many recent media reports have debated the cause of Vermont’s rapidly growing home prices. Although the pandemic and out of state migration to Vermont have likely been factors, Vermont’s housing market was heating up before then. Median home sale prices jumped <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/homeownership-costs/primary-home-sales">5.8 percent from 2018 to 2019</a>, up from the 2-3 percent annual increases in the prior four years. In addition, median home prices nationwide grew even more quickly than Vermont’s during the pandemic, increasing by about <a href="https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/MSPUS">25% since 2019</a>. Taken together, these indicators could point to demand-inducing factors beyond the pandemic, including <a href="https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/MORTGAGE30US">very low mortgage interest rates</a> and the millennial generation’s <a href="https://vhfa.org/news/blog/annual-housing-report-shows-disparate-outcomes-during-pandemic">entrance into the homebuying market</a>. </p> <p>Regardless of these proximate causes, Vermont’s high housing prices are driven in large part by a shortage of homes available to buyers. During the summer of 2021, the for-sale home inventory was roughly <a href="https://www.redfin.com/news/data-center/">47% lower</a> than during the same period in 2019. Similarly, the median length of time that Vermont homes were listed on the market <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/homeownership-costs/days-on-market-price">dropped to 69 days</a>, the lowest point since this data became available. Fewer homes available increases competition among buyers, driving up prices. </p> <p>Without increasing home building or other measures to mitigate rising costs, it remains difficult to see an end to Vermont’s housing crisis. While <a href="https://www.marketwatch.com/picks/home-price-growth-may-return-to-normalcy-5-economists-and-real-estate-pros-predict-what-will-happen-in-the-housing-market-in-2022-01644234946">industry experts</a> predict slightly less demand from home buyers in 2022 due to higher interest rates and an increasing return to pre-pandemic living patterns, Vermont prices will likely remain high. During the last recession, Vermont median home prices <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/homeownership-costs/primary-home-sales">decreased by just 5%</a> before regaining their full value within less than five years in most areas. Although home prices may be inflated, a <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/housing-stock/rate-of-change">decades-long low rate of home production</a> and slow wage growth is likely to keep supply low and prices elevated beyond what the average Vermont household can afford. </p> <p>Policy makers including Vermont Housing Finance Agency (VHFA) are exploring new ways to help ensure that low and moderate income Vermonters have an opportunity to become homeowners. In addition to its <a href="https://www.vhfa.org/homebuyers/buyahome">affordable mortgage and down payment assistance programs</a>, VHFA and partners have proposed a <a href="https://legislature.vermont.gov/Documents/2022/WorkGroups/Senate Economic Development/Affordable Housing/General Housing Topics/W~Maura Collins~Homeownership Development Proposal~2-4-2022.pdf">program</a> to help increase production of modest new homes affordable for middle income buyers. The program was included in the Governor’s budget for FY23 and is currently under consideration by the Legislature. </p> <p><em>*VHFA intends to update home sale volume and prices on housingdata.org in April to account for any delays in sales reported to the Vermont Department of Taxes through the end of 2021.</em><br />  </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Home%20for%20sale.png?itok=8vKGHKcE" width="480" height="303" alt="Home with for sale sign" title="Home with for sale sign" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Wed, 16 Feb 2022 13:21:11 +0000 Mia Watson 15008 at https://www.vhfa.org Study reveals racial discrimination in home appraisals https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/study-reveals-racial-discrimination-home-appraisals <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p><em>This article was written by VHFA Spring Housing Fellow Christina Cramer</em></p> <p>Housing policy and race have long been commingled in the United States. People of Color have typically had a harder time obtaining initial mortgages, home equity loans, and refinancing than their white counterparts. One significant contributing factor to this is the disparity of home appraisal values. A recent study from the <a href="https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-09-28/study-finds-widespread-racial-disparities-in-appraisals">Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation</a> (commonly known as Freddie Mac), as well as other <a href="https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/WrittenTestimony_APerry_2.24.21_Final.pdf">credible reports</a>, finds that racism in the appraisal industry may undervaluing the homes of Black and Latino Americans compared to white homeowners. Black homeowners maintain that their homes are consistently appraised less than those of their white neighbors, resulting in diminishing their ability to build equity and further perpetuating income inequality.  </p> <p>Examining more than 12 million housing appraisals from Jan. 1, 205 to Dec. 31, 2021, <a href="http://www.freddiemac.com/research/insight/20210920_home_appraisals.page">Freddie Mac researchers</a> found that 15.4% of majority Latino census tracts appraisal, and 12.5% of majority-Black census tracts appraisals came in below the contract price for housing assessments compared to 7.4% of appraisals in the white census tracts. The study states, “For both the Black and Latino areas, the percentage of undervalued appraisals increased as the white population percentage decreased.” Additionally, researchers found that, when taking structural and neighborhood characteristics into account, the undervalued appraisals occurred more frequently.  </p> <p>A <a href="https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-09-28/study-finds-widespread-racial-disparities-in-appraisals?srnd=citylab-housing">Gallup and Brookings Institution</a> study also reported that homes in majority-Black neighborhoods are likely to be valued for 23 percent less than a near identical home in a white majority neighborhood. The study examined the property value penalty that characterizes a Black-owned home in a neighborhood on three levels: actual devaluation, devaluation adjusted for structural characteristics of the home and, devaluation adjusted for structural characteristics of the home and neighborhood amenities. The study concluded that “the devaluation of majority-Black neighborhoods is penalizing homeowners in Black neighborhoods by an average of $48,000 per home, amounting to $156 billion in cumulative losses.” The negative perceptions of Black neighborhoods are shared through not only the housing market, but also the communities such as the fewer quality schools and the placement of stores.  </p> <p>The relationship between the appraised value and the amount of equity in the home helps determine the size of the loan and the interest rate associated with the loan. In the case of home equity loans, the appraisal is key to determining how much can be spent on a child's college education, a room addition, or other purchases that improve or promote a better quality of life. If one has an undervalued assessment, lenders will reduce the available funds.  </p> <p>The appraisal process is partially objective and partially subjective. Comparable home prices, condition of the house, and other factors contribute to the “science” of the appraisal. Many other factors may be assigned a high or low value in a subjective range that may have racial undertones. For many years, professional appraisal organizations have denied the link between racism and the appraisal industry. Some home sellers have resorted to pretending to be white to minimize the race effect to obtain a fair appraisal. Family photos, books written by Black authors, and other Black identifiers were removed from sight of the appraiser. Some have enlisted white friends to be present in their place during the appraisal.  </p> <p>The Appraisal Institute is the nation’s largest professional association of real estate appraisers. The Institute has <a href="https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-03-03/appraisers-acknowledge-bias-in-home-valuations?srnd=citylab-housing">recently acknowledged</a> that racial bias exists in the industry and has proposed remedies to attempt to close the appraisal gap including training on unconscious racial bias, and updating profession ethics standards. On May 14th, 2021 the Appraisal Subcommittee also was approved for an <a href="https://nationalfairhousing.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/2022-01-18-NFHA-et-al_Analysis-of-Appraisal-Standards-and-Appraiser-Criteria_FINAL.pdf?eType=EmailBlastContent&amp;eId=a3d7e0ff-d7c8-4958-bbde-b6143e10ae9d">independent review of industry standards</a> with goals of the review being to “ensure that USPAP Standards and the Appraiser Criteria do not encourage or systematize bias, and that the standards and criteria consistently support or promote fairness, equity, objectivity, and diversity in both appraisals and the training and credentialing of appraisers.”  Further reviews have been completed since, and have provided <a href="https://nationalfairhousing.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/2022-01-18-NFHA-et-al_Analysis-of-Appraisal-Standards-and-Appraiser-Criteria_FINAL.pdf?eType=EmailBlastContent&amp;eId=a3d7e0ff-d7c8-4958-bbde-b6143e10ae9d">multiple recommendations</a> for new best practices.  </p> <p>Owning a home has been demonstrated to help households increase generational wealth, and marginalized communities of color are prevented from this stability. Although these and other initiatives will not fully erase the racial wealth gap, the ability for a Black or Latino homeowner to obtain a fair and accurate real estate appraisal is a positive first step.  </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Home%20appraisal.png?itok=e3IRF9_R" width="480" height="303" alt="Home appraisal" title="Home appraisal" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Thu, 03 Feb 2022 13:44:58 +0000 Mia Watson 14997 at https://www.vhfa.org VHFA releases 2021 Annual Report https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/vhfa-releases-2021-annual-report <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p><em>VHFA has released its <a href="https://vhfa.org/sites/default/files/publications/vhfa_annual_report_2021.pdf">2021 Annual Report</a>. It includes the following letter from VHFA Executive Director Maura Collins: </em></p> <p>It is with deep gratitude that I reflect on the work of VHFA and its partners in 2021. As the world entered a second year facing COVID-19 pandemic challenges, we swiftly adjusted programs to meet the most urgent housing needs of low- and moderate-income Vermonters.<br />  <br /> By administering the <a href="https://vhfa.org/partners/initiatives/program-impacts/map">Vermont Mortgage Assistance program</a>, we came face to face with how critical emergency assistance is for keeping Vermonters stably housed. In the course of just 8 months, this program helped 888 lower income Vermont households to remain safely in their homes. All of these households had lower incomes and had experienced financial hardship as a result of the pandemic.   </p> <p>VHFA also continued its long-standing core programs to finance the costs of constructing and rehabilitating much needed affordable, energy-efficient apartments and provide mortgage and down payment help. </p> <p>We know we can not rest until every Vermont has a decent, affordable home. I look forward to a new year of renewing this commitment and exploring new strategies to keep Vermonters safely housed. </p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Annual%20Report%20blog.png?itok=wwEW7Y2Y" width="480" height="303" alt="Annual Report 2021" title="Annual Report 2021" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Mon, 31 Jan 2022 13:43:06 +0000 Maura Collins 14992 at https://www.vhfa.org Grants available for community place-making https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/grants-available-community-place-making <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>The State of Vermont has announced the launch of of <a href="https://accd.vermont.gov/community-development/funding-incentives/better-places">Better Places</a>, a statewide community grant program that empowers Vermonters to create vibrant and inclusive public places in the hearts of Vermont communities.</p> <p>The program is a joint effort between the Vermont Department of Housing and Community Development, the Vermont Department of Health, the Vermont Community Foundation and Patronicity. </p> <p>Better Places is a non-competitive, community matching grant program serving Vermont’s designated downtowns, village centers, new town centers, or neighborhood development areas. The program provides one-on-one project coaching, local fundraising support, and two to one matching grants ranging from $5,000 to $40,000 to make community-led placemaking ideas a reality. </p> <p>Those who are interested in the program can learn more by attending the program launch webinar on Thursday, February 10, at 11:00 am. <a href="https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/5641626468352610571">Register here</a> or visit the <a href="https://www.patronicity.com/BetterPlacesVT">website</a> to learn more.  </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Montpelier_0.png?itok=oiY94kNI" width="480" height="303" alt="Montpelier" title="Montpelier" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Fri, 28 Jan 2022 13:30:31 +0000 Mia Watson 14991 at https://www.vhfa.org Report makes recommendations for supportive services coordination https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/report-makes-recommendations-supportive-services-coordination <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>A <a href="https://vhfa.org/sites/default/files/publications/Strengthening_Housing_Services_System.pdf">new report</a> by the Corporation for Supportive Housing (CSH) calls for better alignment between housing and supportive services in Vermont. The report was commissioned by the Vermont Housing Finance Agency (VHFA) and the Vermont Housing &amp; Conservation Board (VHCB). CSH convened a steering committee of leaders across the state and held a series of focus groups among providers and clients to develop solutions. </p> <p> The report focuses on how subsidized apartments built through programs like the Low Income Housing Tax Credit are being paired with mental health treatment and other supportive services provided through local community agencies. These services have become particularly important as Vermont housing funders like VHFA have prioritized housing projects that set aside units for people that are experiencing homelessness or who are at-risk. These individuals and households often have special needs that can make it difficult to transition to stable housing without support systems.   </p> <p> This system was heavily stressed by the COVID-19 pandemic, which saw an extraordinary effort to move more than 1,300 households from homelessness or temporary shelters into permanent units. VHFA and VHCB have begun to allow more substantial supportive services to be financed within housing project budgets, but this reduces the amount of funding available for the construction of new units and may not be sustainable long-term. </p> <p> In addition to funding scarcity, the report identified a number of issues that have made providing supportive services in Vermont challenging, including attracting and retaining service providers, aligning housing and health providers, housing capacity, and the increasing behavioral health needs of program participants.</p> <p> CSH noted that with the new federal resources available from CARES and ARPA funding, Vermont has an opportunity to better integrate systems. The report emphasizes drawing solutions from people with lived experience and the providers who work directly with them. It highlights programs that offer individualized support, prioritize early intervention and adjust to the changing needs of clients. It suggests that successful programs offer services within the housing setting when possible. </p> <p> The report calls for better collaboration and data sharing among partners, as well as shared financing and shared governance between the State, housing providers and health providers. This could include a special state-based supportive services fund aligned with housing. It also suggests a statewide plan to address staff shortages and to support recruitment and retention among housing, social services and health care sector providers. </p> <p>The full report is available on <a href="https://vhfa.org/sites/default/files/publications/Strengthening_Housing_Services_System.pdf">VHFA's website</a>.</p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Supportive%20services.png?itok=aIXnTTDp" width="480" height="303" alt="Supportive Services" title="Supportive Services" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Thu, 27 Jan 2022 14:56:12 +0000 Mia Watson 14988 at https://www.vhfa.org Governor Scott announces new Homeowner Assistance Program to help keep homeowners housed https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/governor-scott-announces-new-homeowner-assistance-program-help-keep-homeowners-housed <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>Governor Scott announces a new grant program, the <a href="https://vermonthap.vhfa.org/">Homeowner Assistance Program (HAP)</a>, which will help Vermont homeowners facing pandemic hardships. The program will be managed through the Vermont Housing Finance Agency (VHFA) and is now accepting applications. The program, funded by $50 million from the federal American Rescue Plan Act, will provide grants of up to $30,000 per household towards overdue mortgage payments, utility bills, property taxes, and property association charges. VHFA anticipates that the program will run for multiple years to help reduce the long-term risk of foreclosure and home loss due to the pandemic.</p> <p>“This program is about supporting Vermonters. Through HAP we are keeping people in their homes, stabilizing neighborhoods, and preserving the health of our communities,” said Governor Phil Scott.</p> <p>Passed as a part of the American Rescue Plan Act, this program was supported by Senator Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.), Senator Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) and Congressman Peter Welch (D-Vt.). In a joint statement, the Vermont Delegation said: “As foreclosure moratoriums and forbearance agreements end, many Vermonters are facing an uncertain future. These funds will help homeowners harmed by the pandemic get caught up on their bills and move forward.” </p> <p>VHFA was able to help Vermont homeowners earlier in the pandemic with its <a href="https://vhfa.org/partners/initiatives/program-impacts/map">Mortgage Assistance Program (MAP)</a>. That program assisted nearly 900 households with a total of $10 million in mortgage and property tax assistance, awarded by the VT Legislature. New federal funding will allow HAP to offer expanded its criteria to cover homeowners who do not have a mortgage or who have a reverse mortgage, and it will also cover utility bills and homeowner and condominium association fees to help even more households facing financial challenges.</p> <p>The Homeowner Assistance Program is available to any Vermont homeowner who meets the eligibility criteria and is not just for VHFA mortgage borrowers. The program is available to Vermont homeowners for expenses related to their primary home, who meet income limits, and who are behind on their bills due to a financial hardship associated with the coronavirus pandemic after January 21, 2020. </p> <p>“Since the HAP funding is provided as a one-time-only grant, we highly encourage homeowners to talk with a local HUD-approved housing counselor prior to applying,” remarked Eric Hoffman, VHFA’s Manager of Business Development, who previously worked as a foreclosure intervention counselor. “Their free counseling services can help applicants make sure they are taking advantage of all the loss-mitigation tools that may be available to them.”</p> <p>More information and application materials are available at <a href="https://vermonthap.vhfa.org/">vermonthap.vhfa.org</a>. The website is available in several languages and includes information about how applicants can access additional translation and application assistance. A Homeowner Assistance Program information hotline is open 8 am – 5 pm, Monday through Friday, at 833-221-4208.<br />  </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/HAP%20Twitter.jpg?itok=DAT02rhq" width="480" height="270" alt="Homeowner Assistance Program" title="Homeowner Assistance Program" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Mon, 24 Jan 2022 13:19:19 +0000 Mia Watson 14986 at https://www.vhfa.org Christina Cramer joins VHFA as Vermont Housing Fellow https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/christina-cramer-joins-vhfa-vermont-housing-fellow <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>University of Vermont graduate student Christina Cramer (she/her) has been named the Spring 2022 Vermont Housing Fellow. The Vermont Housing Fellowship program is intended to provide the Fellow with valuable experience aiding her professional development. Cramer will receive a financial stipend to help VHFA’s housing research and its outreach for its upcoming Homeowner Assistance Program. </p> <p>Cramer is pursuing a Masters of Education in Educational Leadership at the University of Vermont. She currently works in administration at the DREAM program in Winooski, a nonprofit that connects college students and children living in affordable housing to offer mentoring and academic support. She has a Bachelor of Arts in Public Policy and Business Studies at Bentley University. </p> <p>The goal of the Vermont Housing Fellow program is to cultivate interest among graduate students in Vermont-based affordable housing careers with a specific goal of growing the diversity of experiences and perspectives used when thinking about the housing needs in Vermont. The program provides students in Vermont and beyond with the opportunity to relate knowledge gained in the classroom to practical, real-world settings.  The Agency plans to appoint a new student to the fellowship each semester. </p> <p>VHFA is currently accepting applications for the fellowship for the Summer semester of 2022. Please contact VHFA’s Human Resources Director Steve Gronlund (<a href="mailto:sgronlund@vhfa.org">sgronlund@vhfa.org</a>) for more information. Candidates must be graduate students enrolled in an accredited program. Internship course credits may be available through his or her university or through the University of Vermont’s Public Administration program. For information about University of Vermont credits, please contact Julie Starr at <a href="mailto:jstarr2@uvm.edu">jstarr2@uvm.edu</a>.</p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Christina%20Cramer%20hire.png?itok=8b-_uSKe" width="480" height="320" alt="Christina Cramer Housing Fellow" title="Christina Cramer Housing Fellow" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Fri, 21 Jan 2022 13:37:00 +0000 Mia Watson 14985 at https://www.vhfa.org Homelessness Awareness Day is January 20th https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/homelessness-awareness-day-january-20th <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>Vermont's annual <a href="https://www.vtaffordablehousing.org/event/vermont-homelessness-awareness-day-vigil-2022/">Homelessness Awareness Day</a> will take place virtually this year from 9:00 AM to 2:00 PM on Thursday, January 20th. Our partners at the Vermont Coalition to End Homelessness, Vermont Affordable Housing Coalition, Vermont Interfaith Action, and Chittenden County Homeless Alliance are sponsoring a series of activities for the event, including legislative testimony and a Memorial Vigil to remember Vermonters who have died without homes. </p> <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the urgent need to end homelessness in our state. Join advocates, service providers, and people with lived experience in sharing their stories and asking our representatives for safe, secure and affordable housing for all Vermonters. </p> <p>More details are available on <a href="https://www.vtaffordablehousing.org/event/vermont-homelessness-awareness-day-vigil-2022/">Vermont Affordable Housing Coalition's website</a> or on the <a href="https://fb.me/e/2HaunHmXY">Facebook event page</a>. </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Statehouse%20winter%20blog%20new.png?itok=vco_bt83" width="480" height="291" alt="Vermont statehouse building" title="Vermont statehouse" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Tue, 18 Jan 2022 13:53:46 +0000 Mia Watson 14983 at https://www.vhfa.org Ken Pulido joins VHFA as Director of Energy Finance https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/ken-pulido-joins-vhfa-director-energy-finance <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>Executive Director Maura Collins announced that VHFA has selected Ken Pulido (he/him) of South Burlington in the newly created role of Director of Energy Finance.</p> <p>Pulido has a Bachelor’s Degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of California-Irvine and an MBA from Stanford University. He has worked as both a banker and developer in the energy and finance sectors, including most recently as a consultant working with Vermont utilities on decarbonization efforts. He is also a member of the South Burlington Energy Committee. Pulido has been consulting with VHFA for the last year on its Weatherization Repayment Assistance Program (WRAP), before accepting a role as a full-time staff member.</p> <p>"Ken’s expertise has been invaluable in getting WRAP started," Collins remarked. "We are delighted that he has joined the Agency in our efforts to help Vermont reach its energy and climate goals.”</p> <p>In his role as Director of Energy Finance, Pulido will continue his work on the <a href="https://vhfa.org/news/blog/energy-and-housing-leaders-applaud-governor-phil-scott-s-investment-weatherization">Weatherization Repayment Assistance Program (WRAP)</a>, an initiative to design an innovative payment mechanism that will allow more Vermonters to participate in comprehensive home weatherization projects. He will also lead VHFA’s broader activities in the energy finance area including working with other State agencies, non-profits, utilities and others to develop financing structures and programs for a range of new energy initiatives.<br />  </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Ken%20Pulido%20blog.png?itok=Q6A7NQeX" width="480" height="320" alt="Ken Pulido" title="Ken Pulido" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Fri, 14 Jan 2022 13:43:01 +0000 Mia Watson 14982 at https://www.vhfa.org Vermont Bond Bank announces Capital Plan Contest and Forum https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/vermont-bond-bank-announces-capital-plan-contest-and-forum <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p><a href="https://www.vtbondbank.org/">Vermont Bond Bank</a> has announced its first annual Capital Plan Contest as well as the Vermont Capital Planning Forum. In sponsoring the contest, the Bond Bank seeks to recognize best practices in communities of all sizes while allowing all Vermonters to benefit from exemplary models of capital planning throughout the state.</p> <p>Submissions may include all formats of capital plans used by communities and organizations. To be considered, complete a <a href="https://view.officeapps.live.com/op/view.aspx?src=https%3A%2F%2Fmcusercontent.com%2F5238e4fe9c27e6780d295afc8%2Ffiles%2F0e3ae70b-085b-f8c0-fae8-b9791897daf9%2FCapital_plan_questions.docx&amp;wdOrigin=BROWSELINK">short questionnaire</a> and email your capital plan to <a href="mailto:ashley@vtbondagency.org?subject=Capital%20Plan%20submission&amp;body=Please%20find%20attached%20the%20capital%20plan%20for%20%5Binsert%20town%2Fcity%2Fdistrict%20name%20here%5D.">this address</a>. Submissions are due by February 1, 2022.</p> <p>Awards will be reviewed by a panel of statewide experts in infrastructure planning, including VHFA's Managing Director of Community Development, Seth Leonard. Awards will reflect the state’s diversity across communities, with enterprise or utility submissions also welcome. </p> <p>Winners will be featured in the Bond Bank’s future publications on capital planning. Additionally, winners will receive professional photography of a related project and special recognition at the Bond Bank’s upcoming capital planning forum, and all will receive technical assistance on capital plan implementation.<br />  <br /> The award ceremony will take place at the virtual Vermont Capital Planning Forum on Thursday, April 7, 2022.</p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Road%20construction.png?itok=Ue2Lj8Q4" width="480" height="303" alt="Road construction" title="Road construction" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Mon, 27 Dec 2021 20:31:14 +0000 Mia Watson 14967 at https://www.vhfa.org AIA to offer free design services for affordable housing https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/aia-offer-free-design-services-affordable-housing <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>The <a href="https://www.aiavt.org/">Vermont chapter of the American Institute of Architects (AIA)</a>, will host a design charrette session with pro-bono services for affordable housing projects.</p> <p>AIA-VT invites Vermont nonprofits, municipalities, and community-based groups to submit specific affordable housing projects in the early or conceptual stages for review.</p> <p>Selected projects will be part of a design charrette event on March 25th, 2022 on the campus of Vermont Technical College (VTC) in Randolph. The event will include a panel discussion with experts in affordable housing and a 2-hour participatory planning process that assembles an interdisciplinary team to create a design and implementation plan for the selected projects. Participating groups will come away with a better understanding of what they might be able to accomplish with their proposed affordable housing project. </p> <p>Information on how to apply is available on <a href="https://www.aiavt.org/news-events/event-details/post/aiavt-affordable-housing-charrette-20220223-105221">AIA-VT's website</a>. The application period closes on January 24, 2022. Selected projects will be announced by January 31.</p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Architecture.png?itok=tXHwvSUD" width="480" height="303" alt="Architecture plans" title="Architecture " loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Wed, 22 Dec 2021 13:19:17 +0000 Mia Watson 14966 at https://www.vhfa.org Developer survey reports widespread cost increases and delays related to pandemic https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/developer-survey-reports-widespread-cost-increases-and-delays-related-pandemic <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>A <a href="https://vhfa.org/sites/default/files/publications/State-Residential-Development-2021.pdf">new white paper </a>from Vermont Housing Finance Agency (VHFA) finds that 86% of Vermont housing developers were experiencing project delays during the pandemic. The report draws from an online survey of statewide developers in August and a subsequent forum that brought together over 60 development professionals and state regulators to discuss challenges and potential solutions. Despite unprecedented state and federal funding increases from pandemic relief bills, Vermont’s development community is encountering significant challenges completing projects.   </p> <p>“For at least the near future, housing and public infrastructure projects will likely be more expensive and take longer to complete than before the pandemic. Expectations for those investments need to reflect the current market environment,” said Seth Leonard, VHFA’s Managing Director of Community Development and one of the paper’s authors. “At the same time, the Vermont development community has shown willingness to seek creative and collaborative solutions to help bring much-needed new homes online.”</p> <p>Most developers reported experiencing delays between four to seven months across their work portfolio. Vermont has actually seen more planned projects during the pandemic than in prior years, with 56 multifamily (5+ units) buildings permitted in Vermont in 2021 through September, compared to 47 throughout 2019. This suggests that the building industry is optimistic about demand for housing, although delays across the industry may slow actual project completion. </p> <p>Respondents pointed to several factors causing project delays, with material and labor availability ranked as top factors. Higher project costs for materials (particularly lumber and steel) and higher costs and lower availability in labor and services, particularly among certain skilled trades such as electricians, were also cited as a significant factor in delays. 64% of respondents reported that they had abandoned or substantially delayed starting a project due to cost pressures. </p> <p><img alt="Table with top reasons for development delays during pandemic" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" height="339" src="https://www.vhfa.org//sites/default/files/images/Development%20delays.png" width="515" /></p> <p>These cost increases are ultimately reflected in a project’s bottom line. Between 2020 and 2021, the average cost of a proposed development for a Vermont apartment funded by Low-Income Housing Tax Credits awarded by VHFA rose 9% to $333,774 per unit. However, housing costs had already been escalating prior to the pandemic. A <a href="https://vhfa.org/sites/default/files/publications/final_analysis-_vt_affordable_rental_housing_dvt_cost_factors_-_01.15.2020.pdf">2019 study</a> found that development costs in Vermont and Northern New England were increasing more quickly than in other parts of the country. The pandemic is further stretching already scarce available public resources to fund affordable housing in Vermont.</p> <p>The forum discussed ways that state policy makers could help facilitate development and contain costs. Several developers noted that the construction labor force is in short supply and aging, and that the state should invest in promoting building trade career options to young adults. However, the most common frustration voiced among developers in the survey and forum was with permitting and regulations. They noted that permitting in Vermont can be complex, time-consuming and duplicative at the state and local levels. Public interjection into the process can substantially change or even derail a project, adding to delays and costs. </p> <p>Looking forward, VHFA expects to see continued higher project costs and delays over at least the next 12 months. Although more funding for community development is undoubtedly needed and welcome, the federal infrastructure bill currently under review in Congress is likely to increase pressure on labor, material, and general development capacity. With material and labor costs largely out of state and local control, at least in the short term, policy-related solutions should focus on removing inefficiencies in the permitting and review process, with duplicative federal, state, and local review processes integrated as much as possible. </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Construction.png?itok=ylBupbKs" width="480" height="303" alt="Construction vehicle" title="Construction vehicle" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Tue, 14 Dec 2021 14:35:06 +0000 Mia Watson 14964 at https://www.vhfa.org Ribbon-cutting celebrated at New Avenue in St. Johnsbury https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/ribbon-cutting-celebrated-new-avenue-st-johnsbury <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>Vermont Housing Finance Agency (VHFA) Executive Director Maura Collins joined housing partners on Wednesday for a <a href="https://vermontbiz.com/news/2021/december/08/historic-new-avenue-building-reopened-downtown-st-johnsbury">virtual ribbon-cutting ceremony</a> for New Avenue Apartments in downtown St. Johnsbury. The historic building, redeveloped by RuralEdge and Evernorth, offers 40 apartments and ground-floor commercial space. The project received the majority of its funding from federal tax credits and a long-term loan awarded by VHFA. </p> <p>The building that now houses New Avenue apartments was originally built as a hotel in 1897. The building was converted to subsidized apartments in 1988, however, in recent years its quality had deteriorated significantly. RuralEdge and Evernorth acquired the building in 2018, aided by a special $1 million appropriation from the state Legislature. </p> <p>The project involved a full gut rehabilitation, improving the layout and completely updating building systems while retaining historic features where possible. Bread Loaf Corporation, the construction manager, produced a <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7gNgz8qUsyQ">video of the renovation process</a> that highlights the role of women construction workers on the project.</p> <p>Current tenants were offered housing vouchers while the building was renovated. The renovated building offers 37 affordable and 3 market-rate apartments, including 9 homes reserved for homeless and at-risk households, paired with supportive services. Together, the new housing and commercial spaces will help connect tenants to jobs, transportation and services while also contributing to St. Johnsbury’s economic revitalization. </p> <p>"VHFA’s Board of Directors was eager to support this development because of its transformational impact on St. Johnsbury," remarked Collins. “I don’t think we could list all the wins that this development accomplished. VHFA is proud to join the community in today’s celebration.”</p> <p>The $15 million project received federal Low Income Housing Tax Credits and a $625,000 permanent loan awarded by VHFA. The tax credits were purchased by Housing New England Fund 1, raising over $7.3 million in equity for construction. Other funders included the Vermont Housing and Conservation Board (VHCB), the National Housing Trust Fund, the Vermont Community Development Program (VCDP), the Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston’s Affordable Housing Program, and the Vermont Community Foundation. </p> <p><em>Pictured: New Avenue Apartments. Courtesy of Evernorth. </em></p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/New%20Avenue.jpg?itok=OBWCOIQX" width="480" height="319" alt="New Avenue apartments St. Johnsbury" title="New Avenue apartments St. Johnsbury" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Thu, 09 Dec 2021 16:16:19 +0000 Mia Watson 14961 at https://www.vhfa.org Bidding closes Friday in online gift basket auction for United Way https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/bidding-closes-friday-online-gift-basket-auction-united-way <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.5pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#212529">VHFA is again hosting a virtual auction to benefit United Way of Northwest Vermont. <a href="https://www.biddingforgood.com/VHFAVT" style="color:#0563c1; text-decoration:underline"><span style="color:#056985">Online bidding</span></a> is now live and <u>bidding ends in TWO DAYS</u>.  </span></span></span><b><span style="font-size:14.5pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#00b050">There’s lots of good deals so bid now!!!!</span></span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:16px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="font-variant-ligatures:normal"><span style="text-decoration-thickness:initial"><span style="text-decoration-style:initial"><span style="text-decoration-color:initial"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.5pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#212529">The theme of this year’s auction is "Vermont Made". The auction features 26 themed gift baskets, many containing products from Vermont companies and artisans, all donated by staff and local businesses. This is an amazing opportunity to support a worthy cause, highlight the work of talented Vermonters, and finish your holiday shopping stress-free. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:16px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="font-variant-ligatures:normal"><span style="text-decoration-thickness:initial"><span style="text-decoration-style:initial"><span style="text-decoration-color:initial"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.5pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#212529">All proceeds from the auction will go directly to the <a href="http://unitedwaynwvt.org/" style="color:#0563c1; text-decoration:underline"><span style="color:#022f3b">United Way of Northwest Vermont</span></a> whose mission is to build a stronger Northwest Vermont by mobilizing our community to improve people’s lives. United Way brings together individuals, nonprofits, businesses, and government entities to fight for the education, financial stability and health of every person in Chittenden, Franklin and Grand Isle counties.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:16px"><span style="font-size:11pt"><span style="background:white"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="font-variant-ligatures:normal"><span style="text-decoration-thickness:initial"><span style="text-decoration-style:initial"><span style="text-decoration-color:initial"><span style="font-family:Calibri,sans-serif"><span style="font-size:14.5pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:#212529"><a href="https://www.biddingforgood.com/VHFAVT" style="color:#0563c1; text-decoration:underline"><span style="color:#056985">Now it is time to bid!</span></a> The auction closes at 3:00 pm on Friday, December 3<sup>rd</sup>.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/United%20Way%20auction.png?itok=AcfxkHYZ" width="480" height="320" alt="Online auction" title="Online auction to benefit United Way" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Wed, 01 Dec 2021 14:13:44 +0000 Leslie Black-Plumeau 14954 at https://www.vhfa.org Ribbon cuttings celebrated in November https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/ribbon-cuttings-celebrated-november <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>This month Vermont Housing Finance Agency (VHFA) joined partners at ribbon-cutting ceremonies at Lincoln Place in Rutland and Red Clover Commons in Brattleboro. The two projects together created 37 new apartments, all of which will be paired with supportive services to help residents live independently. </p> <p>At <a href="https://www.mynbc5.com/article/old-rutland-catholic-school-converted-into-affordable-housing/38139243">Lincoln Place in Rutland</a>, Housing Trust of Rutland County renovated the former Immaculate Heart of Mary School building to create 19 new affordable apartments, 10 of which will be reserved for individuals experiencing or at risk of homelessness. Each apartment will be paired with a voucher to ensure that tenants pay no more than 30 percent of their income towards rent, and every tenant will have access to supportive services including counseling. Lincoln Place is close to downtown Rutland, with walkable access to transportation, jobs and amenities.  </p> <p>The $6.5 million project received most of its funding from federal Low Income Housing Tax Credits awarded by VHFA. The tax credits were purchased by People’s United Bank to raise around $3.7 million in equity for construction.  </p> <p><a href="https://www.reformer.com/local-news/red-clover-commons-two-opens-new-park-to-replace-old-housing-in-west-b/article_9407e5ba-43d8-11ec-92be-b72dc87afe87.html?utm_term=Autofeed&amp;utm_medium=Social&amp;utm_source=Facebook&amp;fbclid=IwAR3n-FUP8khO4sJtxdpakIpjfaT6zcWmwCurMU41g6tVNITa4wERR1ClcrM#Echobox=1637214483">Red Clover Commons</a> is the second phase of a joint project of Brattleboro Housing Partnerships and Evernorth. The new building will include 18 apartments for seniors and disabled households. The project is a major relocation effort that began after Tropical Storm Irene severely flooded 80 apartments at Melrose Terrace, a public housing project in West Brattleboro. Rather than rebuilding in an area at such substantial risk for another flood, tenants were relocated to the new Red Clover Commons site. The first phase with 55 units was completed in 2016.  </p> <p>The new building incorporates universal design principles for accessibility and all residents will have access to SASH (Support and Services at Home), a care-coordination program that helps residents live safely, comfortably and independently. In addition, four apartments will be reserved for homeless and at-risk households. </p> <p>The $6.0 million project received around $3.5 million from federal Low Income Housing Tax Credits awarded by VHFA.  </p> <p>Other funders of the two projects include the Vermont Housing and Conservation Board (VHCB), the Vermont Department of Housing &amp; Community Development (DHCD), the FHLBank’s Affordable Housing Program, and the National Housing Trust Fund. </p> <p><em>Pictured: Ribbon cutting ceremony for Lincoln Place. Courtesy of Housing Trust of Rutland County</em></p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Lincoln%20Place.jpg?itok=jhwPVtqg" width="480" height="314" alt="Lincoln Place ribbon cutting" title="Lincoln Place ribbon cutting" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Tue, 30 Nov 2021 13:06:15 +0000 Mia Watson 14952 at https://www.vhfa.org VHFA hosting Weatherization Pilot Program focus groups https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/vhfa-hosting-weatherization-pilot-program-focus-groups <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>A group of energy and financing agencies is developing an innovative weatherization payment mechanism that will allow more Vermonters to participate in comprehensive weatherization projects. One step is to hear from potential customers to help design the process. We are seeking interested homeowners whose building is between 1-4 units in size to participate in a 1-hour focus group. Participants will each receive a $50 gift card for their time. Please find details and dates below. Register and share with others who may be interested!</p> <p>Weatherization Payment Design Focus Group <br /> Help us design an electrifying weatherization payment process! A group of Vermont’s energy and financing partners are working to establish a new payment mechanism, allowing more Vermonters to pay for comprehensive weatherization projects to make homes more efficient, affordable, and comfortable. Participants will hear a short presentation about the initiative then have time to ask questions and provide important feedback and improvements. This will be a 1-hour event held virtually over Zoom. In exchange for your time, you will receive a $50 gift card. </p> <p>If you are a homeowner of a building between 1-4 units (including a single family home that you live in) and would like to participate, register for a focus group by following one of the following links: <br /> o    December 14th, 6-7pm **<a href="https://zoom.us/meeting/register/tJMqceqsqTwrHtTXYkXdAoDBHQuHHFvn4Vy1">Zoom link registration</a>**  <br /> o    December 15th, 6-7pm **<a href="https://zoom.us/meeting/register/tJ0pd-itrzsjG9J115NE2QJY4c0AOrZYuMN-">Zoom link registration</a>** </p> <p>Have questions? Can’t make it to these dates but want to participate? Contact Chad Simmons at <a href="mailto:csimmons@vhfa.org">csimmons@vhfa.org</a> or 802.451.8627 (voice/text/Whatsapp) </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/weatherization_0_0.png?itok=2a-BS-RE" width="480" height="303" alt="Home insulation installation" title="Weatherization program" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Tue, 23 Nov 2021 17:43:45 +0000 Mia Watson 14950 at https://www.vhfa.org Interview with VAHC Director David Martins https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/interview-vahc-director-david-martins <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>In <a href="https://youtu.be/1Ujjs_Gplpk">another installment</a> of VHFA's housing video series, VHFA Executive Director Maura Collins interviews David Martins, who was appointed Director of the Vermont Affordable Housing Coalition (VAHC) this July.</p> <p>In the video, Martins explains how VAHC helps organize Vermont housing organizations to advocate for the interests of low-income Vermonters. He describes some of their recent community advocacy activities and plans to build VAHC's membership. </p> <p>Martins recently wrote a <a href="https://vtdigger.org/2021/10/14/david-martins-out-of-storm-and-peril-rental-housing-safety-in-vermont/">commentary for VT Digger</a>, sharing his support for the Rental Housing Safety Bill that has been under consideration in the Legislature. Martins argues that more oversight of our rental stock is needed to ensure that Vermonters have access to safe and healthy homes. </p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Blog%20VAHC.png?itok=Y3nP6gr-" width="480" height="303" alt="VAHC interview" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Wed, 27 Oct 2021 13:11:50 +0000 Mia Watson 14939 at https://www.vhfa.org Ribbon-cutting celebrated at Parc Terrace in Winooski https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/ribbon-cutting-celebrated-parc-terrace-winooski <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>Last week, Vermont Housing Finance Agency (VHFA) joined Representative Peter Welch and housing partners in Winooski to celebrate the completion of <a href="https://www.summitpmg.com/management/rental-properties/parc-terrace/">Parc Terrace</a>. The 46-apartment mixed-income project was developed by Summit Properties in collaboration with Dagesse Company. The $11.6 million project received federal housing Low Income Housing Tax Credits awarded by VHFA, which were sold to raise over $8 million in equity for construction.  </p> <p paraeid="{2427e848-5685-4a98-8ed1-86f52122f5c6}{199}" paraid="1246321572">Parc Terrace is part of Winooski’s redeveloped Gateway District. Winooski has made zoning reform for housing a priority, including introducing form-base code and a streamlined permitting process. In 2019, Summit completed Casavant Overlook, another subsidized development just across the street in the district. The two projects bring residents close to jobs, schools, amenities, and transportation, supporting their needs as well as the local economy. Parc Terrace will include a new Vietnamese restaurant in a commercial space on the ground floor.</p> <p paraeid="{2427e848-5685-4a98-8ed1-86f52122f5c6}{237}" paraid="1997965702">The project will be a welcome addition to Chittenden County’s tight rental market, as well as the critical need for homes for Vermonters who are leaving temporary pandemic accommodations. The building includes 33 homes affordable to households earning 60% of area median income. As part of the project, Summit will add nine apartments for households experiencing or at risk of homelessness to its portfolio, four of which will be located at Parc Terrace. The apartments will be paired with supportive services through a partnership with the Committee on Temporary Shelter (COTS). </p> <p paraeid="{2427e848-5685-4a98-8ed1-86f52122f5c6}{253}" paraid="1861301188">Vermont’s congressional delegation is urging Congress to expand the supply of federal Low Income Housing Tax Credit program in spending legislation currently under consideration. Senator Leahy, Senator Sanders and Representative Welch have been long-standing supporters of improvements to the program, which is the largest source of funding for new affordable home development in Vermont.  </p> <p paraeid="{2427e848-5685-4a98-8ed1-86f52122f5c6}{253}" paraid="1861301188"><em>Photo courtesy of Summit Properties</em></p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Parc%20Terrace_0.jpg?itok=oxF4th31" width="480" height="320" alt="Parc Terrace ribbon cutting" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Fri, 15 Oct 2021 21:27:53 +0000 Mia Watson 14927 at https://www.vhfa.org Spotlight on ARPA resources for affordable housing https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/spotlight-arpa-resources-affordable-housing <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>In the <a href="https://youtu.be/FTde8kKudBg">newest installment</a> of VHFA's housing video series, VHFA Executive Director Maura Collins interviews Vermont Housing &amp; Conservation Board Policy Director Jennifer Hollar on how federal American Rescue Plan Act pandemic recovery funding is being used to create new affordable homes for Vermonters. </p> <p>The interview discusses how $144 million in new state and federal funding is being allocated, with 1,158 new homes expected to be created by the end of 2023. Already, 459 of those homes have been designated for Vermonters who are at risk of or experiencing homelessness.</p> <p>In the video, Hollar describes the process of how VHCB awards funding to developers of affordable housing. More information on how to apply for ARPA-SFR funds is available on <a href="https://vhcb.org/our-programs/housing/arpa-sfr">VHCB's website</a>. The next application deadline is November 10th, 2021, for consideration at VHCB's January 26, 2022 Board Meeting. </p> <p>VHCB will host a virtual public information session with more information on Tuesday, October 12th from 2:30-4:00. Meeting link: <a href="https://us02web.zoom.us/j/84527825012" rel="noopener" target="_blank">https://us02web.zoom.us/j/84527825012</a></p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Housing%20Spotlight%20blog%20ARPA.png?itok=UTvjbZoB" width="480" height="303" alt="Housing spotlight video ARPA VHCB" title="Vermont Housing Spotlight on ARPA" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Fri, 08 Oct 2021 16:46:19 +0000 Mia Watson 14926 at https://www.vhfa.org Local housing forums in October https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/local-housing-forums-october <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>There's still time to register for the statewide <a href="https://vhfa.org/news/blog/vermont-housing-summit-be-held-october-13">full-day Housing Summit</a> on Wednesday, October 13 in Arlington. VHFA will join other experts in sharing case studies and best practices to promote affordable housing development. Municipal officials, housing developers, nonprofits, legislators and anyone having an interest in supporting the development of quality housing is encouraged to attended. Participants must register by no later than <strong>October 6th</strong>. More details and registration instructions are available in the <a href="http://www.bcrcvt.org/uploads/1/1/1/8/111899771/vermont_housing_summit_-_october_13.pdf">event flyer</a>. </p> <p>Another community housing forum will take place in Essex on Wednesday, October 27. VHFA Executive Director Maura Collins will join Essex's State Representatives, Seth Jensen, the Deputy Director of Lamoille County Planning Commission, and members of the Essex Housing Commission to discuss affordable housing initiatives in Vermont. The event will be held from 6:00 PM to 8:00 PM, both in person at the Essex Police Department at 145 Maple St, Essex Junction or virtually on Zoom. <a href="https://tinyurl.com/25dw45xv">Registration</a> is required for both. </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Essex%20Vermont.png?itok=qNsA7RGf" width="480" height="315" alt="Essex Vermont" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Wed, 06 Oct 2021 00:08:55 +0000 Mia Watson 14924 at https://www.vhfa.org NEFCU announces $3 million investment in VHFA housing fund https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/nefcu-announces-3-million-investment-vhfa-housing-fund <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>New England Federal Credit Union (NEFCU) President/CEO John J. Dwyer, Jr. announced at a press conference held today at their headquarters in Williston a $3 million contribution to Vermont Housing Finance Agency (VHFA)’s Housing Investment fund. The money will be awarded by VHFA over the next three years to developers to address Vermont’s critical need for affordable rental housing and homeownership opportunities. </p> <p>“The housing shortage in Vermont, already a crisis, has been made even worse by recent events,” noted Dwyer.  “Major, immediate action is needed. In line with our ongoing mission of community support, we are beginning a comprehensive campaign that will provide multiple solutions to this complex challenge.”</p> <p>This is the not the first time that NEFCU has made a major housing investment with VHFA. NEFCU donated $1.5 million in grants in 2017 and 2018, which helped build 114 affordable homes across the state. This new investment will allow VHFA to help even more Vermont homebuyers and renters access safe, decent, and affordable housing opportunities.</p> <p>VHFA intends to use a portion of the new investment to launch a pilot program to build affordable single-family homes for moderate income families. This will further NEFCU and VHFA’s shared goal of expanding homeownership opportunities for communities who have been historically underserved, especially Black and Brown households.</p> <p>The funds will also be used to make loans to fill critical project gaps in housing developments, providing key financing for economically integrated rental housing across in Vermont’s downtowns and growth centers, close to schools, jobs and other economic opportunities will help our cities and towns stay strong and vibrant. These projects will include permanent homes for Vermonters at risk of or experiencing homelessness, paired with supportive services to help them succeed.</p> <p>NEFCU’s investment represents a public-private partnership that will help expand the reach of Vermont’s housing resources. On average each dollar of this investment will be paired with 25 state, federal and private dollars, providing the “but for” funding needed to make key affordable housing projects a reality.</p> <p>“VHFA's long-standing role as a key coordinator of housing investment in the state as well as our 47 years of underwriting experience will allow us to make smart, impactful investments on behalf of NEFCU,” remarked VHFA Executive Director Maura Collins. “I applaud NEFCU’s vision, leadership, and dedication to serving their communities, and look forward to the work ahead.”</p> <p>The NEFCU initiative will also include a separate $3 million commitment with Champlain Housing Trust (CHT) to advance BIPOC homeownership opportunities, as well as NEFCU’s own Home Ownership Made Easier (HOME) program to help first-time homebuyers struggling with affordability.</p> <p>“My kids and I rent an affordable housing apartment from Champlain Housing Trust, and like many families we too dream of owning our own home someday,” said Antoinette Bennett-Jones, who is a member of CHT’s Board of Directors. “But people who are not white have a harder time because of the history [of this country]. My parents and other family members had less opportunities to build wealth, to buy a home and the legacy which still affects my family today. Thank you New England Federal Credit Union, for realizing that now is the time to invest in equity, to help people like me reach the American dream of homeownership.” </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/NEFCU%20press%20conference.jpg?itok=v6D7yEXl" width="480" height="324" alt="NEFCU press conference" title="NEFCU press conference" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Thu, 30 Sep 2021 15:20:28 +0000 Mia Watson 14922 at https://www.vhfa.org Groundbreaking celebrated at Bayview in South Hero https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/groundbreaking-celebrated-bayview-south-hero <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>Last week, VHFA joined Governor Scott and housing partners in South Hero for a <a href="https://www.wcax.com/2021/09/22/groundbreaking-set-new-affordable-housing-south-hero/?utm_source=twitter&amp;utm_medium=social&amp;utm_campaign=snd&amp;utm_content=wcax">groundbreaking ceremony</a> at Bayview Crossing. The project, developed by Cathedral Square Corporation, will create 30 mixed-income apartments for senior residents. The project will receive the majority of its funding from federal credits and a loan awarded by VHFA.   </p> <p>"We know housing, especially housing working Vermonters and retirees and can afford, is a tremendous need in Vermont, all across Vermont," remarked Governor Scott.  </p> <p>The project will include 24 apartments affordable to households earning at or below 60% of Area Median Income (AMI) and six units for households earning up to 100% AMI. As part of the project, six apartments in other buildings off-site will be set aside for homeless or at-risk of households. Bayview will also contain a commercial space with an office for Champlain Islanders Developing Essential Resources (CIDER), a local nonprofit offering transportation, meals and other services to island residents.  </p> <p>Bayview is especially noteworthy as the first affordable housing developed in the islands in over 10 years. Many Islanders have moved away from the area in great part due to the lack of affordable housing. All Bayview Crossing tenants will have access to SASH (Support and Services at Home), a care-coordination program that helps residents live safely and independently. The apartments at Bayview Crossing will allow people to age in the community they call home, staying connected to their family and friends, and natural surroundings.   </p> <p>The project was particularly difficult to develop due to requiring water and sewer systems originally not present at the site. However, the development had strong community support, with the Town of South Hero expanding the Village Center boundary to include the project site. This was key to accessing funding and infrastructure to support the project. </p> <p>Bayview Crossing is expected to cost roughly $10.62 million. Roughly $6.87 million will come from federal Low Income Housing Tax Credits and a long-term loan awarded by VHFA. Other funders included the Vermont Housing and Conservation Board (VHCB), and the Vermont Department of Housing &amp; Community Development (DHCD), Enterprise Community Partners, Housing Ministries of New England, Efficiency Vermont, and Vermont Electric Cooperative. The project also raised $435,000 from a capital campaign and donations with $125,000 for the housing portion of the project. </p> <p>Cathedral Square expects construction to be completed by Fall, 2022. </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Bayview%20Crossing.png?itok=tWYRurXJ" width="480" height="318" alt="Bayview Crossing groundbreaking" title="Bayview Crossing groundbreaking" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Mon, 27 Sep 2021 13:26:25 +0000 Mia Watson 14918 at https://www.vhfa.org Barbara Asiimwe joins VHFA as Vermont Housing Fellow https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/barbara-asiimwe-joins-vhfa-vermont-housing-fellow <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>University of Vermont graduate student Barbara Asiimwe (she/her) has been named the Fall 2021 Vermont Housing Fellow. Asiimwe will receive a financial stipend to help VHFA’s research and outreach for its upcoming <a href="https://vermonthap.vhfa.org/">Homeowner Assistance Program</a>. In addition, the Vermont Housing Fellowship program is intended to provide the Fellow with valuable experience aiding her professional development. </p> <p>Asiimwe is pursuing a Master of Public Administration and currently works at UVM as an administrator in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics. Before that, she worked for several years as a senior banking officer and researcher at the national Bank of Uganda. She has a Master of Arts in Economics from Makerere University in Kampala.  </p> <p>The goal of the Vermont Housing Fellow program is to cultivate interest among graduate students nationwide in Vermont-based affordable housing careers with a specific goal of growing the diversity of experiences and perspectives used when thinking about the housing needs in Vermont. The program provides students in Vermont and beyond with the opportunity to relate knowledge gained in the classroom to practical, real-world settings.  The Agency plans to appoint a new student to the fellowship each semester. </p> <p>VHFA is currently accepting applications for the fellowship for the Spring semester of 2022. Please contact VHFA’s Human Resources Director Steve Gronlund (<a href="mailto:sgronlund@vhfa.org">sgronlund@vhfa.org</a>) for more information. Candidates must be graduate students enrolled at an accredited program. Internship course credits may be available through his or her university or through the University of Vermont’s Public Administration program. For information about University of Vermont credits, please contact Julie Starr at <a href="mailto:jstarr2@uvm.edu">jstarr2@uvm.edu</a>. </p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Barbara%20blog.png?itok=nOIfdRk-" width="480" height="320" alt="Barbara Asiimwe" title="Barbara Asiimwe" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Fri, 24 Sep 2021 13:45:58 +0000 Mia Watson 14915 at https://www.vhfa.org Using local ARPA funds for housing can help Vermont municipalities https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/using-local-arpa-funds-housing-can-help-vermont-municipalities <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p style="margin-bottom:11px">VHFA and the Vermont League of Cities and Towns recently published a checklist of <a href="https://www.vlct.org/sites/default/files/documents/Resource/Use_ARPA_Funds_HousingAffordability.pdf">options for using local recovery funds</a> provided through the American Rescue Plan Act (ARPA) to promote recovery from the pandemic through investments in housing and neighborhoods. By providing more safe, affordable housing, communities can address inequities, promote health and spur broader economic benefits. The checklist joins the many resources available to communities in the <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/toolbox/steps-for-municipalities">Vermont Housing-Ready toolbox</a>.</p> <p>The importance of housing to the U.S recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in historic levels of funding for <a href="https://www.hud.gov/sites/dfiles/Main/documents/Factsheet_Housing_Provisions_American_Rescue_Plan_Act-2021.pdf">new and existing housing programs</a>, including emergency renter and homeowner assistance funds, through the American Rescue Plan Act (ARPA).  In addition to program-specific investments, ARPA is providing Vermont with more than $1.25 billion of Coronavirus State and Local Fiscal Recovery Funding. A sizeable portion of ARPA funds go directly to communities. This is the first time in decades that direct, unrestricted federal financial assistance has flowed to local government.</p> <p>Vermont’s cities, towns, and villages will receive about $200 million in direct ARPA funding, giving city councils and selectboards discretion over how to spend their allocations. Flexibility allows community leaders to tailor the use of these funds to best meet the local needs that are impeding their town’s recovery from the pandemic. <a href="https://www.vpr.org/vpr-news/2021-09-20/with-arpa-money-coming-in-vermont-towns-make-plans-to-spend-millions">Some Vermont towns</a> are already thinking about how to ensure funds are invested in a way that make lasting improvements.</p> <p>The <a href="https://www.vlct.org/resources/american-rescue-plan-information">Vermont League of Cities and Towns</a> provides information critical to supporting local governments in accessing and using their ARPA funds. Vermont’s non-entitlement unit (NEU) communities will receive a total of $167,851,168 via their direct allocations and their portion of the Vermont’s <a href="https://www.vlct.org/news/county-arpa-redistribution-calculation-done">county allocations</a>. As Vermont’s <a href="https://home.treasury.gov/system/files/136/fiscalrecoveryfunds-metrocitiesfunding1-508A.pdf">metropolitan cities</a>, Burlington and South Burlington will receive the largest awards in the state ($27,176,144 and $5,654,533 respectively) via their direct allocations and <a href="https://www.vlct.org/news/county-arpa-redistribution-calculation-done">share of Chittenden County’s allocation.</a></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><em>Pictured: Taylor Street Apartments in Montpelier. The City of Montpelier has modeled effective local approaches for helping housing, including funding some costs of developing these apartments, providing down payment assistance to home buyers and grants for creating accessory dwelling units.</em></p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Taylor-Street-Apartments.jpg?itok=AwJ5N0cH" width="480" height="360" alt="Taylor Street Apartments in Montpelier" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Wed, 22 Sep 2021 16:26:35 +0000 Leslie Black-Plumeau 14917 at https://www.vhfa.org RFP reissued for equity in housing initiative https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/rfp-reissued-equity-housing-initiative <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>The Vermont Housing &amp; Conservation Board updated and re-issued a <a href="https://www.vhcb.org/news/news/september-17-2021">Request for Proposals (RFP)</a> last week regarding the design and launch of a statewide initiative to address racial justice and equity in housing. The initiative will be guided by a steering committee comprised of representatives from NeighborWorks Alliance of Vermont, NeighborWorks America, VHFA, and other to-be-identified stakeholders. The goal of the initiative is to examine how racial inequities impact Black, Indigenous, and People of Color living in Vermont and identify actions, on both policy and programmatic levels, which expand access to affordable housing for all Vermonters.</p> <p>The updated RFP reflects feedback received by the steering committee and is intended to identify one or more consultants who will design and implement the first phase of the statewide initiative: a seminar series and roundtable discussions. New to this RFP round, respondents have the option of submitting a proposal for designing and implementing either the seminar series, the roundtable discussions, or a proposal that addresses both components.</p> <p>Proposals are due <strong>Wednesday October 20</strong>, with an open period for questions prior to the close date. For submission requirements and more information, <a href="https://www.vhcb.org/news/news/september-17-2021">read the RFP here</a>.<br />  </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Montpelier.png?itok=xs9CXL2P" width="480" height="303" alt="Montpelier" title="Montpelier" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Wed, 22 Sep 2021 12:19:09 +0000 Mia Watson 14916 at https://www.vhfa.org Survey reviews barriers and incentives for affordable housing in Vermont towns https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/survey-reviews-barriers-and-incentives-affordable-housing-vermont-towns <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p paraeid="{e991fd64-f14c-4844-bb9c-d41814aeff19}{210}" paraid="809559410">We know that housing development in Vermont has <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/housing-stock/rate-of-change" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">slowed in recent decades</a> and this—combined with population growth, a decrease in household size, and wage stagnation—has led to the cost of buying and renting inching more and more out of reach for over one third of Vermonters. Though the solution will necessitate action from many sources, including federal and state government, municipalities can play a vital role in encouraging development and combating unaffordability. </p> <p paraeid="{e991fd64-f14c-4844-bb9c-d41814aeff19}{235}" paraid="2076818548"><a href="https://vhfa.org/sites/default/files/publications/Affordable_housing_VT_towns_1.pdf">A new report shares</a> findings of a survey conducted by Vermont Housing Finance Agency in late July, with assistance from the Vermont Department of Housing and Community Development (DHCD). The survey asked town officials about barriers to and incentives for affordable housing development in their community. Key findings from the survey include: </p> <ul role="list"> <li aria-setsize="-1" data-aria-level="1" data-aria-posinset="1" data-font="Symbol" data-leveltext="" data-listid="1" role="listitem"> <p paraeid="{8a096c78-2521-4c49-8044-65b832494073}{4}" paraid="869934525">Constraints in municipal and community water systems are restricting housing development. 55 percent of town officials feel that their municipal water systems are limiting the development of new homes and 60 percent say the same about their sewer systems. These constraints are greatest for middle-sized towns with a population of 1001-3000. </p> </li> <li aria-setsize="-1" data-aria-level="1" data-aria-posinset="2" data-font="Symbol" data-leveltext="" data-listid="1" role="listitem"> <p paraeid="{8a096c78-2521-4c49-8044-65b832494073}{27}" paraid="1836113422">Vermont towns have high minimum lot sizes. 71 percent of surveyed towns had a minimum lot size of 1/2 acre or larger somewhere in their borders. Only 36 percent allowed minimum lot sizes of 1/4 acre or less. Unnecessarily large minimum lot sizes are incredibly detrimental to the development of affordable homes because the cost of land will ultimately be passed on to the buyer or renter.  </p> </li> <li aria-setsize="-1" data-aria-level="1" data-aria-posinset="1" data-font="Symbol" data-leveltext="" data-listid="1" role="listitem"> <p paraeid="{8a096c78-2521-4c49-8044-65b832494073}{46}" paraid="1058706029">There is a divide in the maximum density allowed in each town. Over one-quarter of Vermont towns restrict the maximum allowed density to fewer than three units per acre while another quarter allow a residential density of 20 or more units per acre. Artificially limiting density creates a large barrier to affordable development because it eliminates the economies of scale needed to keep costs per unit down. Like infrastructure constraints, density changes with population. Over two-thirds of towns with fewer than 3000 people have a maximum density of three units or fewer per acre. Only 14 percent of towns with over 3,000 people limited residential development to this density. The plurality, or 46 percent, of these towns allowed 20 units or more per acre.  </p> </li> </ul> <p paraeid="{8a096c78-2521-4c49-8044-65b832494073}{78}" paraid="1220707886"><img alt="" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" height="468" 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" unselectable="on" width="669" /></p> <ul role="list"> <li aria-setsize="-1" data-aria-level="1" data-aria-posinset="1" data-font="Symbol" data-leveltext="" data-listid="1" role="listitem"> <p paraeid="{8a096c78-2521-4c49-8044-65b832494073}{81}" paraid="2117534866">Most towns allow at least some types of residential development that are more likely to be affordable to low- and moderate-income households. Almost three out of four towns allow multifamily buildings with 5 or more dwelling units to be developed, although the density limits described above may make that challenging in practice. Two in three towns allow rooming/boarding/co-living houses. 87 percent allow manufactured/modular/mobile homes.  </p> </li> <li aria-setsize="-1" data-aria-level="1" data-aria-posinset="1" data-font="Symbol" data-leveltext="" data-listid="1" role="listitem"> <p paraeid="{8a096c78-2521-4c49-8044-65b832494073}{121}" paraid="1604552294">There is room to expand "by right" development. 83 percent of towns allow single family homes to be built by right (without a discretionary review process which adds costs and delays construction, decreasing affordability) and nearly four out of five towns allow accessory dwelling unit development by right. The number of towns allowing by right development decreases as the number of dwelling units in the proposed project increases; only about one in four towns allow a multifamily home with five or more units to be built by right. </p> </li> </ul> <p paraeid="{8a096c78-2521-4c49-8044-65b832494073}{140}" paraid="107265111"><img alt="" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" height="378" 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" unselectable="on" width="629" /></p> <ul role="list"> <li aria-setsize="-1" data-aria-level="1" data-aria-posinset="1" data-font="Symbol" data-leveltext="" data-listid="1" role="listitem"> <p paraeid="{8a096c78-2521-4c49-8044-65b832494073}{143}" paraid="939929521">Some towns make use of density bonuses, but few offer other incentives for affordable development.  A little under one third of towns utilize density bonuses to encourage affordable housing development. 19 percent of municipalities have relaxed their accessory dwelling unit standards more than the state requires.  Over half of towns who responded to the survey do not have specific policies aimed at incentivizing affordable home development. </p> </li> <li aria-setsize="-1" data-aria-level="1" data-aria-posinset="2" data-font="Symbol" data-leveltext="" data-listid="1" role="listitem"> <p paraeid="{8a096c78-2521-4c49-8044-65b832494073}{177}" paraid="92040968">Towns are slightly in favor of expanding their stock of affordable homes. When asked how interested their community was in expanding its stock of homes affordable to lower income residents on a scale of one to one hundred, two fifths of town officials listed a number less than 50 and three fifths wrote a number equal or greater than 50. The average interest was 53.8 out of 100. </p> </li> </ul> <p paraeid="{8a096c78-2521-4c49-8044-65b832494073}{208}" paraid="1237384037">There are many tools that a municipality can use to encourage housing affordability in their community. Simple procedural updates like streamlining the permitting process or lowering the number of conditional use reviews can reduce delays in construction and uncertainty in the project's outcome—two factors which increase costs for developers and make securing loans more difficult. Regulation changes can also be incredibly effective. Allowing for higher density development, lower minimum lot sizes, and fewer parking requirements all reduce the amount of land a developer must acquire to build new homes, one of the largest cost drivers of a residential project. </p> <p paraeid="{8a096c78-2521-4c49-8044-65b832494073}{236}" paraid="616765427">If you would like to learn more about the steps your town can make to improve home affordability, please review <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/toolbox/regulatory-tools" rel="noreferrer noopener" target="_blank">these suggestions</a> prepared by the Vermont Housing Finance Agency. </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Neighborhood.png?itok=pRUds2Vy" width="480" height="303" alt="Zoning survey neighborhood" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Mon, 20 Sep 2021 12:29:07 +0000 Mia Watson 14895 at https://www.vhfa.org High home prices persist in first half of 2021 https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/high-home-prices-persist-first-half-2021 <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p style="margin-bottom:11px">The median Vermont primary home sold for <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/homeownership-costs/primary-home-sales-ytd">$259,900 during the first six months of 2021</a>, compared to <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/homeownership-costs/primary-home-sales">$245,000 throughout 2020</a>, a six percent increase. This aligns with the <a href="https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/home-sale-prices-rise-2020-fueled-strong-second-half-year">6.9% price increase seen between 2019 and 2020</a>, suggesting that the state is on track for significant but steady growth in home sale prices. </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px">However, some areas of the state saw much larger price growth over the course of the pandemic. As shown in the graph, some towns saw nearly doubled home prices between 2019 and 2021 (January through June sales). These towns were scattered across Vermont, although most in the southern half of the state. Notably, none of those towns were in Chittenden County, which has historically had the <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/homeownership-costs/primary-home-sales">highest home prices</a> and the <a href="https://vtdigger.org/2021/08/12/census-2020-chittenden-gains-most-people-signaling-increased-political-strength/">largest population growth</a> in the state. </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><img alt="Graph of home sale price increase during pandemic" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" height="682" src="https://www.vhfa.org//sites/default/files/documents/images/Home%20sales%20pandemic.PNG" width="654" /></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px">Several of the towns with the greatest home price increases are in rural areas that experienced unusually high <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/population-household/population">population growth</a> recorded during the 2020 Census, <a href="https://vtdigger.org/2021/09/05/does-census-data-reveal-the-movements-of-out-of-state-residents/">potentially from out of state buyers fleeing from the pandemic</a>. However, price increases in other areas like Ferrisburgh and Barre Town might be reflecting demand from buyers who are looking for homes near job centers but have looked further away than usual due to limited options.   </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px">There were 3,948 homes sold statewide between January and June of 2021, compared to 3,379 during the same period in 2019, prior to the pandemic. However, despite that substantial increase, the Vermont market still lacks enough homes to meet demand. Inventory in July 2021 was 31 percent lower than same period of the prior year, according to <a href="https://www.redfin.com/news/data-center/">data from Redfin.</a> Lack of inventory has led to faster home sales, with the median days on market dropping to <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/homeownership-costs/days-on-market-type">69 days in July</a>, compared to 78 days in July of 2020. Increased competition and faster home sales tend to increase sale prices. </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px">It remains difficult to predict how quickly prices will continue to increase over the coming months. The median price of a primary home sold in June 2021 was $285,520, compared to $245,000 in June of 2020, a 17 percent price increase. However, the home sale market is seasonal, and in normal years tends to slow down slightly after the end of the summer. The six percent increase between 2020 through the first six months of 2021 is much more in line with the <a href="https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/vermont-home-sale-prices-increase-2019">year to year increase </a>that had been seen before the pandemic. </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px">Many <a href="https://www.forbes.com/advisor/mortgages/when-will-the-housing-market-cool-off/">national real estate experts</a> anticipate that the market will cool slightly this fall and into 2022, with inventory increasing and the strong impetus to move that characterized the early stages of the pandemic waning. While Vermont home prices are unlikely to actually decline, a return to a more normal home sale market may mean a slower growth in prices. </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px">In many respects, the narrative that Vermont is experiencing an out-of-control housing market overlooks the fact that the state has faced an affordability crisis for years. Vermont’s long-standing lack of homes affordable to moderate-income households has more to do with a <a href="https://www.housingdata.org/profile/housing-stock/rate-of-change">persistent decline in homebuilding </a>over the last several decades than out of state migrants.  </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px">However, <a href="https://vhfa.org/homebuyers/buyahome">VHFA programs </a>may be able to help first-time buyers get their foot in the door. VHFA recently expanded its <a href="https://www.vhfa.org/homebuyers/loanprograms">Down Payment Assistance Program</a> to offer up to $10,000 for down payment and closing costs for qualified borrowers. Income and other eligibility requirements apply. All VHFA programs are offered through local participating lenders. Go to <a href="http://www.vhfa.org/homebuyers">www.vhfa.org/homebuyers</a> to learn more. </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Home%20sales.png?itok=KW6yABK7" width="480" height="303" alt="Row of homes" title="Home sales 2021" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Tue, 14 Sep 2021 12:11:00 +0000 Mia Watson 14911 at https://www.vhfa.org VHFA launches Vermont Housing 101 video series https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/vhfa-launches-vermont-housing-101-video-series <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p style="margin-bottom:11px">Vermont Housing Finance Agency (VHFA) has launched a <a href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLiJCxkwf4XBdOgUpUb5rdqjZAKgtQS4oI">new video series</a> on how affordable housing works in Vermont and the important housing issues facing our state today.</p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px">The videos are narrated by VHFA Executive Director Maura Collins, drawing on her years of experience teaching graduate level housing policy at the University of Vermont (UVM) and leading affordable housing and homelessness work in Vermont. The series is an ideal introduction for people new to the complex network of agencies that are responsible for affordable housing funding in the state to learn how Vermont’s housing needs inform housing policy decisions. Each video is 5-15 minutes in length, offering an informative but approachable learning experience. </p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px">VHFA intends to expand the series over time with more videos, including interviews with experts and presenting the latest research conducted by the Agency.</p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px">People interested in following the series should subscribe to the <a href="https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLiJCxkwf4XBdOgUpUb5rdqjZAKgtQS4oI">Vermont Housing 101 playlist</a> on <a href="https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC33yL2Jem_sG6EqeKpP5RuA">VHFA’s YouTube channel</a> to get notifications when new videos are released. <br />  </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Blog%20post%20housing%20101.png?itok=QAVLa3FC" width="480" height="303" alt="Vermont Housing 101 cover image" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Thu, 09 Sep 2021 12:16:31 +0000 Mia Watson 14910 at https://www.vhfa.org Vermont Coalition to End Homelessness issues RFP https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/vermont-coalition-end-homelessness-issues-rfp <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>The Vermont Coalition to End Homelessness has issued a Request for Proposals to be funded by the U.S. Department of Housing &amp; Urban Development (HUD) as part of the FY2021 CoC Program Notice of Funding Availability. </p> <p>The Vermont Coalition to End Homelessness is the Vermont Balance of State Continuum of Care (VT BoS CoC), which serves Vermonters experiencing or at risk of homelessness. The VT BoS CoC geographic area encompasses all counties in Vermont except Chittenden County. Applications will be submitted to the Vermont State Housing Authority (VSHA), who serves as the “Collaborative Applicant”.</p> <p>The VT BoS CoC is seeking proposals to provide housing and service priorities with a priority to serve vulnerable populations including individuals &amp; families experiencing chronic homelessness, persons fleeing domestic violence and families with children under 18.</p> <p>Detailed instructions and application materials are available on <a href="https://helpingtohousevt.org/hudfunding/fy2021-hud-continuum-of-care-notice-of-funding-opportunity/">The Vermont Coalition to End Homelessness website</a>.  Proposals are due by Wednesday, September 29, 2021.</p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Falll%20road.png?itok=eS4k0Tox" width="480" height="303" alt="Fall road" title="Fall road" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Tue, 07 Sep 2021 12:32:50 +0000 Mia Watson 14907 at https://www.vhfa.org Vermont Housing Summit to be held on October 13 https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/vermont-housing-summit-be-held-october-13 <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>Housing leaders statewide have partnered to host a full-day Housing Summit on Wednesday, October 13 in Arlington. Municipal officials, housing developers, nonprofits, legislators and anyone having an interest in supporting the development of quality housing is encouraged to attended. </p> <p>VHFA will join representatives from the Department of Housing and Community Development, Vermont Housing and Conservation Board, the Bennington County Regional Commission and other experts to share case studies drawn from Vermont communities and best practices to promote affordable housing development.</p> <p>The summit will take place from 9:00 AM to 3:30 PM at Arlington Commons, 3960 VT Route 7A in Arlington. The $15 registration fee includes lunch. More information and an agenda is available on the <a href="http://www.bcrcvt.org/uploads/1/1/1/8/111899771/vermont_housing_summit_-_october_13.pdf">event flyer</a>. </p> <p>To attend, complete the <a href="http://www.bcrcvt.org/uploads/1/1/1/8/111899771/vermont_housing_summit_-_october_13.pdf">registration form</a>  and return it to Allison Strohl at the Bennington County Regional Commission at <a href="mailto:astrohl@bcrcvt.org">astrohl@bcrcvt.org</a> (subject line: “Housing Summit”) or via mail to BCRC / Housing Summit - 210 South Street—Suite 6 - Bennington, VT 05201. The registration payment can be made via check (made out to BCRC) or paid at the door.</p> <p>Participants must register no later than October 6.</p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Arlington%202.jpg?itok=NRQuQLE3" width="480" height="320" alt="Arlington Vermont" title="Arlington Vermont" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Fri, 03 Sep 2021 12:42:36 +0000 Mia Watson 14906 at https://www.vhfa.org VHFA awards state tax credits to create affordable homeownership opportunities https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/vhfa-awards-state-tax-credits-create-affordable-homeownership-opportunities <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p style="margin-bottom:11px">On Monday, the Vermont Housing Finance Agency (VHFA) Board of Commissioners awarded $425,000 in state housing tax credits for homeownership development projects. Once sold to investors, the credits will yield nearly $2 million in equity for construction. The projects will create new, high-quality homes affordable to low- and moderate-income Vermont homebuyers, which are virtually unavailable in Vermont’s in private housing market.</p> <p>The Board awarded housing tax credits for three new homeownership projects developed by Champlain Housing Trust (CHT) and Green Mountain Habitat for Humanity. CHT and Habitat have previously collaborated on 17 homes. The sites are purchased by Habitat, which provides construction oversight and identifies potential future homeowners. CHT provides project financing and homebuyer education. All three projects also received funding from the Vermont Housing &amp; Conservation Board (VHCB).</p> <p>The homes will be sold to low and moderate-income buyers who will use the equity as a down payment which will lower monthly mortgage payments. When buyers are eventually ready to move, the home is resold through CHT to another moderate-income buyer. The original homeowner makes a small profit and the perpetual affordability of the home is ensured.</p> <p>Projects include 1891 North Avenue in Burlington’s New North End. It will include a newly constructed duplex and a single-family home on a single site. All three units will be 3-bedroom homes. The homes will sell for between $151,500 and $160,000, affordable to households earning 48% of area median income (AMI). The project location is immediately adjacent to the Green Mountain Transit bus stop at Northgate Apartments. Construction has already begun on the project, with completion anticipated by June 2022.</p> <p>At 92 Irish Hill Road in Shelburne, CHT and Habitat will develop two new 3-bedroom townhouse style homes. The site is located a short distance from Shelburne Village and is walkable to a Green Mountain Transit stop and the LaPlatte River Nature Park. The homes will be sold at a net sales price of $145,000, affordable to households earning as low as 50% AMI. The project is expected to be completed in December 2022.</p> <p>A third project will build a duplex with 3-bedroom units at Clearview Estates in Milton. The site is less than a mile from Milton’s Village Center. Clearview Estates is being developed by Sterling Homes and will consist of 34 family homes and five duplexes, with all the other homes being developed as market rate homeownership. Eligible buyers will be able to purchase homes in the CHT/Habitat duplex for  $126,500, affordable to families at 41% of area median income (AMI). Project completion is anticipated by June 2022.</p> <p>Champlain Housing Trust also received tax credits for approximately 35 new homes through its Manufactured Housing Down Payment Loan Program. The statewide program provides 0% interest second mortgages to help borrowers place a new traditional Energy Star manufactured home on owned land or in a manufactured home community. The program also serves households looking to replace old manufactured homes with a highly efficient modular home like Vermod. Since 2012, CHT has served 230 households and 489 individuals, in  every Vermont county. The median income of borrowers is $45,350. With 76% of households either living on land they own or in a non-profit owned manufactured home community, the program offers a sustainable path to long-term affordable homeownership.</p> <p> The Board also awarded additional state tax credits to previously awarded projects at Butternut Grove in Winooski (a homeownership project formerly referred to as <a href="https://vhfa.org/news/blog/vhfa-awards-state-tax-credits-affordable-homeownership-development">Mallets Bay Avenue</a>), <a href="https://vhfa.org/news/blog/vhfa-awards-federal-and-state-tax-credits-107-affordable-apartments">Tuttle Block</a> in Rutland, and <a href="https://vhfa.org/news/blog/vhfa-awards-federal-and-state-tax-credits-develop-and-preserve-affordable-housing">Clark Canal Phelps</a> in Windsor/Brattleboro. The three projects encountered unexpected delays and increased costs due to the pandemic, which the additional tax credits will help alleviate.</p> <p><em>Pictured: Vermod high efficiency modular home.</em></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"> </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/Vermod.jpg?itok=QNbZKprT" width="480" height="300" alt="Manufactured home" title="Vermod manufactured home" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Thu, 02 Sep 2021 14:19:54 +0000 Mia Watson 14904 at https://www.vhfa.org Draft Vermont Homeowner Assistance Fund Plan released https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/draft-vermont-homeowner-assistance-fund-plan-released <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>On August 13, 2021, VHFA released the <strong><a href="https://www.vhfa.org/sites/default/files/publications/VHFA%20Draft%20HAF%20Plan%2008132021.pdf">draft Homeowner Assistance Fund plan</a></strong> for submission to the U.S. Treasury describing homeowner needs and proposed programs to be offered through the Vermont Homeowner Assistance Program. The plan is based on data pertaining to homeowner needs and input provided by community and state organizations committed to serving low and moderate income Vermont homeowners. VHFA held 3 public meetings in June 2021 to discuss the upcoming program.  </p> <p>A public meeting will be held via Zoom on Thursday, August 19, 2021 at noon to review the draft plan. <a href="https://us02web.zoom.us/meeting/register/tZEkdeyuqTkoGdUBhmN4ChTip35OBTuvtRD1">Registration</a> for this meeting is required. To share suggestions or ask questions about the draft plan, please email <a href="mailto:HomeownerAssistance@vhfa.org?subject=Vermont%27s%20HAF%20plan%20">HomeownerAssistance@vhfa.org</a> by August 19, 2021 or participate in the meeting that afternoon.</p> <p>For the latest information about the status of the upcoming Vermont Homeowner Assistance Program, please check the <a href="https://www.vhfa.org/news/HAF">Homeowner Assistance Program web page</a>. </p> <p> </p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/house-and-calculator_003_0_1.jpg?itok=qcMDoTaZ" width="433" height="289" alt="house and calculatr" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Mon, 16 Aug 2021 14:33:02 +0000 Leslie Black-Plumeau 14868 at https://www.vhfa.org Homeowner Assistance Fund public meeting set for August 19th https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/homeowner-assistance-fund-public-meeting-set-august-19th <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>VHFA will hold a 4th public meeting on Thursday, August 19, 2021 to review Vermont's draft Homeowner Assistance Fund (HAF) plan. The meeting will be held via Zoom at noon. <a href="https://us02web.zoom.us/meeting/register/tZEkdeyuqTkoGdUBhmN4ChTip35OBTuvtRD1">Registration</a> is required.</p> <p>The <a href="https://www.vhfa.org/news/HAF">Homeowner Assistance Fund</a> was created by the federal American Rescue Plan Act to help homeowners avoid foreclosure and displacement by mitigating financial hardships related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Fund will provide Vermont up to $50 million over a multi-year period to provide assistance for mortgage and other expenses facing Vermont homeowners. Vermont's HAF plan must describe the needs of the state's homeowners, the design and budget for each program proposed for funding with HAF funds, performance goals, and information regarding readiness to implement the programs.  </p> <p>Earlier this week, the U.S. Treasury issued more detailed <a href="https://home.treasury.gov/system/files/136/HAF-Guidance.pdf">guidance</a> about the components and submission process for HAF plans. </p> <p>A draft HAF plan reflecting this guidance, as well public comments submitted during the past few months, will be posted online by August 13. To review the draft plan and get the latest information about the status of the HAF program in Vermont, please check the <a href="https://www.vhfa.org/news/HAF">Vermont HAF news web page</a>.</p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/house-and-calculator_003_0_0_1.jpg?itok=4Z5CuDm4" width="433" height="289" alt="HAF" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Tue, 10 Aug 2021 12:27:04 +0000 Leslie Black-Plumeau 14863 at https://www.vhfa.org Housing First initiative reports successful outcomes in Denver https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/housing-first-initiative-reports-successful-outcomes-denver <div property="content:encoded" class="article__body"><p>Homelessness has been persistent across United States cities and states. In Vermont, <a href="https://www.vhfa.org/news/blog/point-time-count-2020-shows-slight-increase-number-homeless">the number of people experiencing homelessness has been rising slightly</a>, even before the COVID-19 pandemic, which nearly doubled that number from 1,110 to over 2,000 at its height.  As a percentage of population, <a href="https://www.statista.com/statistics/727847/homelessness-rate-in-the-us-by-state/">Vermont has the 10th highest rate of homelessness</a> in the country. However, new strategies across the country are being utilized to successfully place people experiencing homelessness in stable homes.</p> <p>In mid-July, the Urban Institute <a href="https://www.urban.org/features/housing-first-breaks-homelessness-jail-cycle">released a report</a> on an initiative in Denver, Colorado aimed at decreasing and uplifting their population of chronically homeless people and disrupting the pattern of cycling through jail, detoxification centers, and emergency rooms. Their program utilized a Housing First approach, which is based on the philosophy that a person's basic needs like food and shelter must be met before issues such as unemployment, substance abuse or mental health can be addressed.</p> <p>The Denver Supportive Housing Social Impact Bond Initiative (Denver SIB) provided an apartment and other services for chronically homeless Coloradans. The results from a four-year evaluation were overwhelmingly positive. After one year in the supportive housing program, 86 percent of participants remained in stable housing and 77 percent remained after three years. Providing evidence against the myth that those experiencing homelessness prefer to live on the streets, those housed with the Denver SIB lived in permanent housing an average of 560 days more than the control group which received typical services in the community such as shelters. This is an increase of 594 percent. Their average number of days with shelter stays also decreased by 35 percent.</p> <p>People who were referred to supportive housing had 34 percent fewer interactions with police and a 40 percent reduction in arrests. This is largely because they were no longer engaging in illegal but often inevitable behavior like loitering and sleeping in parks. This translated to an average of 38 fewer days spent in jail.</p> <p>The Denver SIB's supportive services also connected people with the medical care that they could not access otherwise. People referred to supportive housing visited the emergency department nine times<a> </a>on average as opposed to fifteen for the control group. They also had eight more office-based health care visits with a psychiatric diagnosis and received three more unique prescription medications. The treatment population also decreased their number of city-funded detoxification facility visits by 65 percent.</p> <p>The housing assistance was paid for with vouchers funded by the state and federal government. Due to the costs associated with emergency room visits, ambulance trips, time spent in jail, and other public services, each participant in the Denver SIB represented $3,733 less per year for the city than the control group who did not receive the supportive housing and services. Denver used a "pay for success" social impact bond model to cover upfront costs. This means that the financial risk was shifted to private investors and the city will repay them over $1 million more than initial contribution because of the program's success. If Denver were to expand the SIB to all 1,209 people experiencing chronic homelessness, they could save $8.3 million in other services.</p> <p>Vermont has its own <a href="https://www.pathwaysvermont.org/what-we-do/our-programs/housing-first/">Housing First initiative organized by Pathways Vermont</a> which has supported over 200 Vermonters and boasts an <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3969120/">85% housing retention rate</a>.<a> </a>Pathways has also partnered with the Vermont Department of Corrections (DOC) and helped 150 former inmates re-enter the community, decreasing long-term incarceration of participants by 81%. By reducing the incarceration rate, Housing First policies in Vermont have saved the state money in the long run.</p> <p>However, the need for supportive housing remains significant. As of 2017, over <a href="https://www.vhfa.org/documents/publications/vt_hna_2020_report.pdf">1,125 former inmates in Vermont prisons had no home to return to</a> upon release and required housing assistance from the Department of Corrections (DOC). Meanwhile, <a href="https://vtdigger.org/2021/07/26/corrections-department-to-fund-15-agencies-for-scattered-and-congregate-housing/">80 percent of all prison admissions</a> in the state are caused by a violation of the terms of furlough, probation, or parole supervision from 2017 to 2019—a statistic the <a href="https://doc.vermont.gov/sites/correct/files/documents/Restorative_Justice/Transitional_Housing/Theory%20of%20Change.pdf">DOC is hoping to change</a> through prioritizing stable housing after release. The department recently <a href="https://www.news10.com/news/vt-news/vermont-doc-to-spend-5-8m-on-transitional-housing/">announced it will invest $5.8 million</a> in transitional housing to shift away from group living situations. Some of this funding has been granted to Pathways Vermont. While not all of the housing providers with which the DOC has partnered utilize the Housing First approach, it is becoming clear that providing safe, stable housing may be the first step in breaking the homelessness-jail cycle.</p> <p>If you are or anyone you know is experiencing homelessness or at risk of being homeless, you can find assistance through the <a href="https://helpingtohousevt.org/">Vermont Coalition to End Homelessness</a>, or call 211.</p> </div> <div class="article__field-image"> <img rel="og:image rdfs:seeAlso" src="/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/denver.png?itok=EA8LAvhJ" width="480" height="303" alt="" loading="lazy" typeof="foaf:Image" class="img-fluid" /> </div> Thu, 29 Jul 2021 12:12:59 +0000 Benjamin Harrold 14834 at https://www.vhfa.org